Orbital apex

Last revised by Dr Calum Worsley on 02 Aug 2021

The orbital apex refers to the posterior confluence of the orbit at the craniofacial junction, where nerves and vessels are transmitted from the intracranial compartment into the orbit via several bony apertures. It is also the point where the extraocular muscles derive their origins.


There are three bony apertures that permit the entry of neurovasculature in to the orbit:

Five of the six extraocular muscles originate at the orbital apex:

The key structures of the orbital apex have complex anatomical relations:

Related pathology

Anatomy: Head and neck

Anatomy: Head and neck

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: orbital apex diagram
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