Ovarian serous cystadenoma

Ovarian serous cystadenomas are a type of benign ovarian epithelial tumour at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours.

Epidemiology

Serous cystadenomas account for ~60% of ovarian serous tumours 1. They are the commonest type of ovarian epithelial neoplasm. The peak incidence is at the 4th to 5th decades of life.

Pathology

Serous cystadenomas are usually composed of unilocular (or at times multilocular) cysts filled with clear watery fluid. The lining of the cyst is flat or may contain small papillary projections. As with other serous tumours, psammomatous calcification can be a feature.

Location

They can be bilateral in ~15% of cases.

Radiographic features

Ultrasound
  • usually seen as a unilocular cystic adnexal lesion
  • papillary projections are absent
    • if there is any wall irregularity, it is thin, with an acute angle with the cyst wall and has a regular surface 5
  • some lesions may contain sonographically detectable septations.
CT

Often seen as a unilocular (typically) or multilocular cystic mass with homogeneous CT attenuation, with a thin regular wall or septum, and usually no endocystic or exocystic vegetation 1,4.  Cysts can be quite large in size and have the potential to be seen filling most of the lower pelvis with extension into the upper abdomen.

MRI

The typical MR imaging appearance of serous cystadenoma is a unilocular thin walled adnexal cyst 2. MRI may show a beak sign which may suggest an ovarian origin.

Signal characteristics within the cyst are usually homogeneous.

  • T1: cyst content is generally of hypointense signal in uncomplicated cases
  • T2: cyst content is of fluid (hyperintense) signal
  • T1 C + (Gd): enhancement of cyst wall sometimes occurs after contrast administration

Treatment and prognosis

They are benign lesions usually with a good prognosis. More content required

Differential diagnosis

General imaging differential considerations include:

See also


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Article Information

rID: 14473
System: Gynaecology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Benign serous tumour of the ovary
  • Serous cystadenoma of the ovary
  • Ovarian serous cystadenoma (OSC)
  • Ovarian serous cystadenomas
  • Serous cystadenomas of the ovary
  • Serous cystadenoma of ovary

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