This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.
Calcium oxalate deposition most commonly affects the bone, bone marrow, blood vessels, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, retina, skin, and thyroid. There are two forms of this condition:
- primary: an autosomal recessive disease that express in childhood
- secondary: usually related to an over ingestion of oxalic acids or its precursors (e.g. vitamin C) in patients with kidney or hepatic chronic diseases, especially during long-term dialysis
Foods that are high in oxalic acids include rhubarb, spinach, celery and cocoa 2.
The typical radiographic finding is cortical nephrocalcinosis.
Treatment and prognosis
When left untreated, hyperoxaluria will ultimately lead to renal failure, which in turn results in oxalosis: a condition in which calcium oxalate crystals are deposited in extrarenal organs.
Renal transplant is the only treatment for patients with renal failure and systemic oxalosis as dialysis is not sufficient to prevent disease progression.
- 1. Kuo LW, Horton K, Fishman EK. CT evaluation of multisystem involvement by oxalosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177 (3): 661-3. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Food safety and toxicity. CRC Press. ISBN:0849394880. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Nasr SH, Kashtanova Y, Levchuk V et-al. Secondary oxalosis due to excess vitamin C intake. Kidney Int. 2006;70 (10): 1672. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5001724 - Pubmed citation