Palmer classification of TFCC abnormalities

Palmer classification for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) abnormalities is based on the cause, location, and degree of injury 1:

Class 1 - traumatic injury
  • a: central perforation of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) disc proper
  • b: ulnar avulsion with or without distal ulnar fracture
    • may involve the proximal or distal lamina (foveal and styloid attachment, respectively), or both
  • c: distal avulsion of the TFCC involving ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligaments
  • d: radial avulsion of the TFC disc proper +/- sigmoid notch fracture
Class 2 - degenerative injury (ulnocarpal abutment syndrome)
  • a: TFCC wear with thinning/fraying without perforation
  • b: TFCC wear in 2a with lunate, triquetral and/or ulnar chondromalacia
  • c: TFCC perforation +/- 2b chondromalacia
  • d: lunotriquetral ligament perforation +/ features of 2a, 2b and/or 2c
  • e: any or all of above with ulnocarpal arthritis

See also

Article information

rID: 5191
Tag: wrist
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Palmer classification of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities
  • Palmer classification of TFCC injuries

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: type 1a
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  • Case 2: type 1d
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  • Case 3: type 1b
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  • Case 4: type 1d
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  • Case 5: type 1b
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  • Case 6: type 1a
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  • Case 7: type 2a
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  • Case 8: type 1d
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  • Case 9: type 2c
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