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The paranasal sinuses usually consist of four paired air-filled spaces. They have several functions of which reducing the weight of the head is the most important. Other functions are air humidification and aiding in voice resonance. They are named for the facial bones in which they are located:
The paranasal sinuses are subject to marked variation between individuals and between sides in the same individual, regarding size (aeration) and bony septations.
total paranasal sinus agenesis - very rare 1
isolated frontal sinus agenesis - common
aerated crista galli
anterior clinoid process pneumatization
protrusion and/or dehiscence of
anterior clinoid processes
greater wing of sphenoid
sphenoid sinus septa attachment on the bony canal of the optic nerve
Normal mucosa of the paranasal sinuses appear hypertinese on T2-weighted images 4.
The maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses are the first to develop, followed by frontal and sphenoidal sinuses 3.
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