Patellar sleeve fractures represent chondral or osteochondral avulsion injury at the inferior pole of the patella.
Patellar sleeve fractures occur in the paediatric population, typically between 8 and 12 years of age.
Unlike Sinding-Larsen-Johannson disease, these injuries are acute and result from sudden and forceful contraction of quadriceps. Acute pain and focal pain and tenderness occur at the time of the injury.
Lateral x-rays demonstrate swelling at the lower pole of the patella and some degree of patella alta. If a small bony fragment has been avulsed with the cartilage, then this too may be seen. Because it is an extra-articular fracture joint effusion is usually absent.
MRI is critical if the diagnosis is suspected as the degree of chondral injury cannot be assessed on plain-radiography, and co-existent extensor mechanism injury may be present.
Treatment and prognosis
Surgical treatment is preferred.
The knee is a complex synovial joint that can be affected by a range of pathologies:
- bone and cartilage
- distal femoral condyle fracture
- tibial plateau fracture (classification)
- patella fracture
avulsion fractures of the knee
- Segond fracture
- reverse Segond fracture
- anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture
- posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture
- arcuate complex avulsion fracture (arcuate sign)
- biceps femoris avulsion fracture
- iliotibial band avulsion fracture
- semimembranosus tendon avulsion fracture
- Stieda fracture (MCL avulsion fracture)
- patella fracture
- chronic avulsion injuries
- chondromalacia patellae
- osteoarthritis of the knee
- osteochondral defects
- osteochondritis dissecans of the knee
- pattern of bone contusion in knee injuries
- knee fractures
- anterior cruciate ligament tear
- anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst
- anterior cruciate ligament mucoid degeneration
- posterior cruciate ligament tear
- medial collateral ligament tear
- lateral collateral ligament tear
- medial patellofemoral ligament tear
- posterolateral corner injury
- posteromedial corner injury
- meniscal lesions
- meniscal tear
- meniscal/parameniscal cyst
- meniscal flounce
- meniscal fraying
- meniscocapsular separation
- synovial lesions
- fat pad
- popliteal fossa