Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) encompasses a number of entities, united by the presence of mucosal ulceration secondary to the effects of gastric acid. Since the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as a common causative agent, and the development of powerful anti-acid medications, peptic ulcer disease has become comparatively rare in western populations. 

Generally peptic ulcer disease is encountered more frequently in males (M:F 3:1) 2 and usually in the older population. 

Risk factors include 2, 4:

  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • NSAIDs
  • corticosteroids
  • severe physiological stress/illness (e.g. admission to intensive care)
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

The majority of cases are due to infection with Helicobacter pylori. This can be confirmed with biopsies obtained at endoscopy and urea breath test, the combination of the two resulting in a detection rate of close to 100% 4

Typically patients with upper abdominal pain and discomfort which is epigastric in location and 'gnawing' in character 2. Classically it is relieved by eating or antacids. 

Presentation may also be with one of a number of complications, including 1:

  • upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage
    • most common complication affecting 14% of ulcer patients 1
    • most common cause of upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage
    • variable presentation
      • incidental: fecal occult blood positive test
      • acute presentation: 
  • perforation
    • affects up to 6% of ulcer patients 1
    • generalised acute abdominal pain, peritonism and shock 2
    • pain by radiate to the right shoulder and back 2
  • gastric outlet obstruction
    • uncommon, only seen in ~1% of ulcer patients 1

Peptic ulceration represents the common end-point of any number of processes which result in a disruption of the normal balance between gastric acid production and protective mechanisms of the mucosa. Regardless of the underlying cause, acid initially results in inflammation and later superficial erosions and eventually frank ulceration. 

Heliocobacter pylori, a spiral gram negative bacterium has been identified as the leading cause of duodenal ulceration 2

Although historically barium studies were the mainstay of investigation for suspect peptic ulceration, endoscopy has in most centers largely replaced the barium meal. Many current younger radiologists/training radiologists have rarely if ever performed a full diagnostic barium meal, and the 'art' of this examination is gradually being lost. 

In the acute setting CT is the modality of choice for assessing a patient with acute abdominal pain, and in some settings may be able to identify the site of bleeding prior to endoscopy. 

Abdominal films have little role in the setting of vague/chronic upper abdominal pain, and have a very low yield. 

In the acute setting an erect chest x-ray is invaluable as it not only often allows the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum to be made with confidence, but also gives treating clinicians important information of the patients general health (e.g. cardiomegaly, aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary metastases). 

Barium meals are performed with liquid barium and an effervescent to distend the stomach with gas and allow a 'double contrast' image. 

Features of ulceration include 2-3

  • pocket of barium filling the ulcer crater
  • oedematous collar of swollen mucosa (to be distinguished from the rolled edges of a malignant ulcer)
  • radiating folds of mucosa away from the ulcer

For more see the article "Gastric ulcer evaluation (barium)"

Ideal technique and findings depends on the presentation. 

Perforation is usually a straightforward diagnosis, often with abundant pneumoperitoneum visible. The site of perforation is sometimes visible as a region of discontinuity in the stomach or duodenal wall. 

Haemorrhage can be challenging to identify and requires a multi-phase scan without positive oral contrast (typically non-contrast, arterial and delayed phase scans are obtained) and the presence of active bleeding. Extravasation and pooling/accumulation of contrast into the lumen of the bowel may be seen. 

Treatment depends on the clinical presentation. 

When dyspeptic symptoms lead to identification of upper gastrointestinal ulceration (usually via endoscopy) patients are typically treated with acid lowering medications and tested for Helicobacter pylori, which if found is then eradicated. This is important not only to prevent recurrence of peptic ulceration and reflux oesophagitis but also because it is associated with a number of malignancies including B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma 4.  

Acute presentation with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage requires expedient resuscitation, especially as the affected population is often relatively frail and hypotension/shock can lead to other medical sequelae (e.g. myocardial infarction, intestinal ischemia). 

In most cases, emergency endoscopy is then performed not only to identify the source of bleeding but also potentially to treat the source of bleeding. Treatments include 1

  • thermal coagulation/electrocoagulation
  • injection
    • vasoconstrictors (e.g. adrenaline/epinephrine)
    • sclerosing agents (e.g. alcohol)
    • coagulants (e.g. thrombin/fibrin)
  • mechanical
    • hemoclips
    • band ligation
    • endoloop 

Perforation is a surgical emergency and in the vast majority of patients, laparotomy and repair of the perforation is performed. 

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Article information

rID: 19000
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Peptic ulcers
  • Peptic ulceration
  • Gastric ulcers

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Cases and figures

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    Figure 1: endoscopy - peptic ulcer (arrows); pylorus (*)
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    Case 1: with perforation
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    Figure 2: gross pathology (perforation)
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    A small 'pit' of ...
    Case 2: gastric ulcer with bull's eye sign
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    Case 3: contained perforation
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    Case 4: contained perforation
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    The exact perfora...
    Case 5: with perforation and contrast leakage
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    Case 6: with active bleeding
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    Case 7: perforated gastric ulcer
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