Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
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Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, also known as percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD), is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction.
It is commonly undertaken as part of palliative biliary stent insertion. Rarely, it is used in the treatment of benign strictures.
ampullary and pancreatic malignancies when retrograde access via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is not amenable
If a stent is present in the biliary ducts, the drainage catheter should not be placed in the pigtail conformation as the small wire retaining the shape may get attached to the stent, preventing it's removal.