Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumour refer to a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumours that arise within the periphery of the lung. They are considered less common than the more centrally located bronchial carcinoid tumours.
Many patients tend to be asymptomatic 2. Presentation with carcinoid syndrome is extremely rare 6.
Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumours are considered a neuroendocrine tumour of the lung. They can be typical (well differentiated - common) or atypical (more aggressive - uncommon).
- smoking: rate of carcinoid tumours is similar between smokers and nonsmokers, although there is increased incidence of atypical subtype amongst smokers 5,6
Most are discovered as an incidental rounded solitary pulmonary nodule. The size at diagnosis can vary but usually reported to be range around 10-30mm 2. Many have lobulated margin with an average Hounsfield value on post contrast imaging at around 50 2. Imaging features are often non specific and tissue diagnosis is essential in determining diagnosis.
Most peripheral carcinoid tumours tend to involve a subsegmental bronchus 2.
May have a sensitivity of around 75% 7.
Galliun68-Octeotide-PET / 68Ga-DOTATATE
Usually avid and useful for diagnosis 8.
- 1. Fink G, Krelbaum T, Yellin A et-al. Pulmonary carcinoid: presentation, diagnosis, and outcome in 142 cases in Israel and review of 640 cases from the literature. Chest. 01;119 (6): 1647-51. doi:10.1378/chest.119.6.1647 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Meisinger QC, Klein JS, Butnor KJ et-al. CT features of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197 (5): 1073-80. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5954 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Magid D, Siegelman SS, Eggleston JC et-al. Pulmonary carcinoid tumors: CT assessment. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1989;13 (2): 244-7. Pubmed citation
- 4. Steinfort DP, Finlay M, Irving LB. Diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumor using endobronchial ultrasound. Ann Thorac Med. 2008;3 (4): 146-8. Ann Thorac Med (full text) - doi:10.4103/1817-1737.43082 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 5. Ducrocq X, Thomas P, Massard G et-al. Operative risk and prognostic factors of typical bronchial carcinoid tumors. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1998;65 (5): 1410-4. Pubmed citation
- 6. Fink G, Krelbaum T, Yellin A et-al. Pulmonary carcinoid: presentation, diagnosis, and outcome in 142 cases in Israel and review of 640 cases from the literature. Chest. 01;119 (6): 1647-51. doi:10.1378/chest.119.6.1647 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Tanaka A, Akamatsu H, Kawabata H, Ariyasu H, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto N. Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumor diagnosed by endobronchial-ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy. Respirology case reports. 4 (1): 10-2. doi:10.1002/rcr2.139 - Pubmed
- 8. Chong S, Lee KS, Chung MJ, Han J, Kwon OJ, Kim TS. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 26 (1): 41-57; discussion 57-8. doi:10.1148/rg.261055057 - Pubmed
- 9. Bhatia K, Ellis S. Unusual lung tumours: an illustrated review of CT features suggestive of this diagnosis. Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society. 6: 72-82. doi:10.1102/1470-7330.2006.0013 - Pubmed
lung cancer: overview
non-small cell lung cancer
- adenosquamous carcinoma
- large cell carcinoma
- primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of lung
- squamous cell carcinoma
- salivary gland type tumours
- pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours
- preinvasive lesions
- benign neoplasms
- pulmonary metastases
- lung cancer screening
- lung cancer staging
- non-small cell lung cancer