Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses

Last revised by Dr Mostafa El-Feky on 27 Jun 2019

The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are variant anatomical arterial communications between the anterior and posterior circulations due to abnormal embryological development of the vertebrobasilar system. They are named, with the exception of the proatlantal artery, using the cranial nerves with which they run:

A mnemonic to help remember these persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses is HOT Pepper.

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: persistent trigeminal artery
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  • Case 2: persistent hypoglossal artery
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  • Case 3: proatlantal intersegmental artery
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  • Case 4: persistent trigeminal artery
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  • Case 5: persistent hypoglossal artery
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