Pineal yolk sac tumor
Citation, DOI & article data
CSF biochemistry may demonstrate elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) which is helpful but not diagnostic of yolk sac tumors, as both immature teratomas and embryonal cell carcinomas may also elevate AFP levels 1.
As with other germ cell tumors, there may be an association with Down syndrome 1-3.
In up to 50% of cases these tumors co-exist with other germ cell tumor histology 4.
No specific imaging findings have been identified, with their appearance being similar to other germ cell tumors of the pineal region 4.
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- 2. Nakashima T, Nishimura Y, Sakai N, Yamada H, Hara A. Germinoma in cerebral hemisphere associated with Down syndrome. (1997) Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. 13 (10): 563-6. doi:10.1007/s003810050139 - Pubmed
- 3. Chik K, Li C, Shing MM, Leung T, Yuen PM. Intracranial germ cell tumors in children with and without Down syndrome. (1999) Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 21 (2): 149-51. Pubmed
- 4. Smirniotopoulos JG, Rushing EJ, Mena H. Pineal region masses: differential diagnosis. (1992) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 12 (3): 577-96. doi:10.1148/radiographics.12.3.1609147 - Pubmed