Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Last revised by Francis Deng on 24 Jan 2020

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations.

Classification

  • type I: fracture inferior to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface
  • type II: fracture extending superior to the fovea capitis, a large fracture involving the weightbearing surface
  • type III: type I or II fracture with a fracture of the femoral neck, has an increased risk of avascular necrosis
  • type IV: type I or II fracture with a fracture of the acetabular wall, usually the posterior wall

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: type I
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  • Case 2: type IV
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  • Case 3: type IV
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  • Case 4: type II
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