Placental mesenchymal dysplasia

Last revised by Rania Adel Anan on 18 Dec 2020

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare, benign condition that is characterized by enlargement of the placenta with multiple bunches of grape-like vesicles that can resemble a molar pregnancy by ultrasound and gross pathologic examination. 

This is an often underdiagnosed and underreported case due to lack of awareness. It has been documented to be more in female fetuses with an F:M of ~3.5:1.

Clinical presentation is diverse and non-specific

The placenta is thickened with multiple cystic or hypoechoic areas. Doppler findings are variable. There are many documented cases of no vascularity within the lesion and further development of vascularity within. These changes could be due to progressive dilatation of chorionic arteries and veins that become aneurysmal.

One study showed that MRI could help differentiate between complete hydatidiform mole with coexistent fetus (CHMCF) by demonstrating PMD as multicystic lesions within the placenta of the fetal sac, and CHMCF with multicystic lesions located within an extra fetal sac 4.

The outcome of the fetus is variable ranging from a completely normal fetus to an increased risk of IUGR or fetal demise.  

It was first described in 1991 by Moscoso et al.

Possible differential considerations include

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.