Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space.
Pneumoretroperitoneum is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential:
- perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus
- ascending/descending colon
- rarely an intraperitoneal hollow viscus can perforate into the intramesenteric space and then track air to the retroperitoneal spaces
- residual air from retroperitoneal surgery
- urological/adrenal 4
- spinal (anterolateral approach) 5
If localized, and especially in the presence of an air-fluid level, a retroperitoneal abscess should be suspected.
Pneumoretroperitoneum is best appreciated by CT, however can also be detected by plain abdominal radiograph and even by transabdominal ultrasound (see veiled right kidney sign) 6,7. Generally, air is most commonly seen surrounding the kidneys in the right and left upper quadrants of the abdomen 6. There may also be a loss of the normal psoas muscle shadow 6.
On plain radiography, the differential is that of gas in other spaces which also projects over the abdomen. It thus includes:
CT has little difficulty in distinguishing these.
- 1. Dähnert W. Radiology review manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781738954. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Skucas J. Advanced imaging of the abdomen. Springer Verlag. (2006) ISBN:1852339926. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Freeman AH, Freeman AH, Balan KK. Radiology of the Stomach and Duodenum. Springer Verlag. (2007) ISBN:3540424628. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Smith AD. Smith's textbook of endourology. Pmph Bc Decker. (2007) ISBN:1550093657. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Kim DH, Vaccaro AR, Fessler RG. Spinal instrumentation, surgical techniques. Thieme Medical Pub. (2005) ISBN:1588903753. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Pinto A, Muzj C, Ruggiero G. (2015) Pneumoretroperitoneum: Imaging Findings. In: Romano L., Pinto A. (eds) Imaging of Alimentary Tract Perforation. Springer, Cham.
- 7. McWilliams RG, Blakeborough A, Johnson MI, Weston M. Case report: The "veiled right kidney sign"--an ultrasound finding in retroperitoneal perforation of the duodenum. (1996) The British journal of radiology. 69 (827): 1061-3. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-69-827-1061 - Pubmed