Prostate-specific membrane antigen
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At the time the article was created Rohan Nandurkar had no recorded disclosures.View Rohan Nandurkar's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Daniel J Bell had no financial relationships to ineligible companies to disclose.View Daniel J Bell's current disclosures
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that has become an increasingly prominent imaging biomarker 1. PSMA has emerged as a useful target in PET imaging of prostate cancer, especially in the evaluation of small volume lymph node and bone metastases 2.
Its structure consists of 750 amino acids (100-120 kDa), with a 19-amino acid intracellular segment, a 24-amino acid intramembrane component and a 707-amino acid extracellular domain 1. PSMA is encoded by the FOLH1 gene located on the short arm of chromosome 11 7.
- significantly overexpressed in prostate cancer tissue 2
- expression is positively correlated with tumor grade, pathological stage and degree of disease recurrence 2
- PSMA is internalised upon binding, resulting in enhanced tumor uptake and retention 3
- ideal target for small-molecule radiopharmaceuticals 3
- physiological expression is observed in normal tissue, e.g. lacrimal glands, parotid glands, duodenum, renal tubules, ileum 4
- experiences overexpression in several other neoplasms e.g. colon cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma 5,6
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- 7. Leek J, Lench N, Maraj B, Bailey A, Carr IM, Andersen S, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen: evidence for the existence of a second related human gene. British Journal Of Cancer. 1995;72:583.
- 8. Michael S. Hofman, Rodney J. Hicks, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET: Clinical Utility in Prostate Cancer, Normal Patterns, Pearls, and Pitfalls. (2017) RadioGraphics. doi:10.1148/rg.2018170108
- 9. Shetty D, Patel D, Le K, Bui C, Mansberg R. Pitfalls in Gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT Interpretation-A Pictorial Review. (2018) Tomography (Ann Arbor, Mich.). 4 (4): 182-193. doi:10.18383/j.tom.2018.00021 - Pubmed
- 10. Foley RW, Redman SL, Graham RN, Loughborough WW, Little D. Fluorine-18 labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-1007 positron-emission tomography-computed tomography: normal patterns, pearls, and pitfalls. (2020) Clinical radiology. 75 (12): 903-913. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2020.06.031 - Pubmed