Prostatic acid phosphatase
Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Joachim Feger had no recorded disclosures.View Joachim Feger's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Joachim Feger had no recorded disclosures.View Joachim Feger's current disclosures
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) also known as prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) is an enzyme generated by prostatic glandular tissue.
It can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify prostatic tissue including prostatic epithelium and prostatic ducts and is usually expressed in prostate cancer 1.
It has been used as a serum marker and high values correlate with a high Gleason grade but it is less sensitive than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 1,2. It might become negative after androgen deprivation therapy.
Research is conducted for its suitability as an immunotherapy target 1,3.
It might be also positive in other cancers including bladder adenocarcinoma, rectal carcinoids or salivary gland tumors and diverse nonprostatic diseases such as Paget disease, hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma etc. 2.
History and etymology
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was the first clinically useful tumor marker after its first description by AB Gutman and EB Gutman in 1938 4. After the appearance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s its use as a serum marker has declined considerably.
- 1. Kong H & Byun J. Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase. Biomolecules and Therapeutics. 2013;21(1):10-20. doi:10.4062/biomolther.2012.095 - Pubmed
- 2. Taira A, Merrick G, Wallner K, Dattoli M. Reviving the Acid Phosphatase Test for Prostate Cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 2007;21(8):1003-10. - Pubmed
- 3. Xu H, Wang F, Li H et al. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) Predicts Prostate Cancer Progress in a Population-Based Study: The Renewal of PAP? Dis Markers. 2019;2019:1-10. doi:10.1155/2019/7090545 - Pubmed
- 4. Gutman A & Gutman E. An “ Acid ” Phosphatase Occurring in the Serum of Patients with Metastasizing Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland. J Clin Invest. 1938;17(4):473-8. doi:10.1172/jci100974 - Pubmed