Last revised by Craig Hacking on 20 Oct 2020

The pubis, together with the ilium and ischium, make up the innominate bone of the pelvis. These are individual bones in the young and unite to form one bone in adults, the principal union forming the fused acetabulum.

The pubis is the ventral part of the innominate bone and forms a median cartilaginous symphysis (pubic symphysis).

The pubic bone has an anteromedial body, a superior ramus passing upwards to the acetabulum and an inferior ramus bordering the obturator foramen which joins the ischial ramus (conjoined ramus or the ischiopubic ramus).

The body of pubis is flattened has an anterior, posterior and symphyseal surface.

The superior pubic ramus is triangular in cross-section has an anterior pectineal surface, a dorsosuperior pelvic surface and downsloping obturator surface. The pectineal surface extends from iliopubic or iliopectineal eminence to the pubic tubercle bounded by obturator crest in front and pecten pubis behind. The obturator surface exhibits an obturator groove along which the obturator vessels and nerves pass from pelvis to the thigh. The pecten pubis is the sharp superior edge of the pectineal surface of the superior ramus of pubis.

The inferior pubic ramus has two surfaces, the anteroexternal surface facing the thigh and the posterointernal surface facing the perineum.

The pubic tubercle is the crest of bone forming the medial attachment of the inguinal ligament and is crossed by the spermatic cord.

The symphyseal surface is elongate and oval, united by cartilage to its fellow at the pubic symphysis.

Muscles that originate from pubis:

Muscles that insert on the pubis:

One ossification center appears in the body of pubis at the prenatal 8th week, which fuses with the ossifying ischium to become a continuous ramus in the 7th or 8th year of life. The pubic tubercle, crest and symphyseal surface may have separate centers.

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1
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  • Figure 2a: muscle attachments (Gray's illustration)
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  • Figure 2b: muscle attachments (Gray's illustration)
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  • Figure 3: ossification centers (Gray's illustration)
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