Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.
Pulled elbows are encountered in young children (typically between 6 months and 3 years of age)1, as a result of pulling on the arm longitudinally, as occurs when yanking a child away from something the parents would rather they not touch, or lifting the child in play (fathers are much more likely to do this).
Children with a pulled elbow will hold the elbow flexed and the forearm in the prone position, unwilling to supinate it 1.
The propensity of young children to develop pulled elbows most likely stems for a generalised ligamentous laxity, which also affecting the annular ligament allows the radial head to sublux into it. In the younger children this results in no ligamentous damage, whereas in older children partial tears are thought to occur, accounting for the persistence of pain a number of days following reduction 1.
Radiography is unhelpful in making the diagnosis, but may inadvertently result in reduction of the subluxation as the radiographer supinates the elbow to obtain an AP view 1-2.
Treatment and prognosis
Supination with the elbow flexed almost always results in reduction, and in infants almost immediate cessation of symptoms. Older children may have a number of days of ongoing discomfort. Only rarely is closed reduction unsuccessful.
A number of patients will have recurrent episodes, however with growth these occur less and less frequently 1-2.
- elbow anatomy
- elbow radiography
- MRI of the elbow - an approach
- supracondylar humeral fracture
- epicondyle fracture
- humeral condyle fracture
- transphyseal fracture
- radial head fracture
- radial neck fracture
- coronoid process fracture
- olecranon fracture
- Panner disease (osteochondrosis of the capitellum)