Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myelogenic leukaemia with acute onset dyspnoea and normal chest radiograph or evident pulmonary oedema. Symptoms are due to small pulmonary vessels or coronary artery obstruction by leukaemic cells.
- normal chest radiograph
- airspace pulmonary oedema
- usually no evidence of interstitial infiltrates
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