Radiation damage (biomolecular)
Biomolecular radiation damage can result when biological tissues are exposed to ionising radiation from direct exposure or via Compton scattering.
Ionisation is known to lead to the production of free radicals; free radicals are uncharged molecules that possess an unpaired valence electron. Consequently, free radicals are quite chemically reactive and can bind efficiently to other molecules' electrons. Free radicals produced via radiation are most commonly seen in water resulting in hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals.
In some cases, free radicals binding with other molecules can cause more free radicals that again bind with other molecules. This chain reaction effect can result in significant alterations to organic material.
If this occurs amidst molecules that are decisive to cellular metabolism, the fundamental function of the cell is at risk. Furthermore, free radicals can affect nucleic acid molecules leading to cell mutation or cell death (cell death is most likely the result of DNA double-strand breaks).
- 1. Takeshita K, Fujii K, Anzai K, Ozawa T. In vivo monitoring of hydroxyl radical generation caused by x-ray irradiation of rats using the spin trapping/EPR technique. Free radical biology & medicine. 36 (9): 1134-43. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.02.016 - Pubmed
- 2. Faiz M. Khan, John P.. Gibbons. Khan's The Physics of Radiation Therapy. ISBN: 9781451182453
- x-ray production
- x-ray tubes
- tube rating
- interaction with matter
- beam collimators
- air gap technique
- intensifying screen
- x-ray film
- image intensifier
- digital radiography
- digital image
- x-ray artifacts
- radiation units
- radiation safety
- as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
- radiation protection
- background radiation
- background radiation equivalent time
- deterministic effect
- dose limits
- inverse square law
- lead apron
- radiation damage (biomolecular)
- radiation damage (skin injury)
- stochastic effect
- radiation detectors