Ranke complex (tuberculosis)
Citation, DOI & article data
Ranke complex is seen in 'healed' primary pulmonary tuberculosis and is a later manifestation of the Ghon complex. It consists of two components:
- a Ghon lesion that has undergone calcification
- an ipsilateral calcified mediastinal node
It is important to note that a Ranke complex is not specific (see below).
History and etymology
Karl Ernest Ranke (1870-1926) was a German physician who developed the (now outdated) hypothesis on the pathology of pulmonary tuberculosis, which became known as "Ranke's stages of tuberculosis" 2.
It should be noted that the imaging findings are completely non-specific. Sequelae of other granulomatous infections, such as healed thoracic histoplasmosis, can have identical imaging findings 3.
More rarely, a calcified or ossified lung metastasis 4 with ipsilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (e.g. from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, or epithelial ovarian neoplasms 5) could give a similar imaging appearance.
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- 2. Saldanha P, Saldanha J. Eponyms in Tuberculosis. (2016) Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences. 4 (2): 287. doi:10.4103/2321-4848.196199
- 3. J W Gurney, D J Conces. Pulmonary histoplasmosis. (1996) Radiology. 199 (2): 297-306. doi:10.1148/radiology.199.2.8668768 - Pubmed
- 4. Maile CW, Rodan BA, Godwin JD, Chen JT, Ravin CE. Calcification in pulmonary metastases. (1982) The British journal of radiology. 55 (650): 108-13. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-55-650-108 - Pubmed
- 5. Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, Melissa L. Rosado-de-Christenson, Christopher M. Walker, Jeffery R. Kunin, Sonia L. Betancourt, Brenda L. Shoup, Paul P. Pettavel. Imaging Features of Thoracic Metastases from Gynecologic Neoplasms. (2014) RadioGraphics. 34 (6): 1742-54. doi:10.1148/rg.346140052 - Pubmed