Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a sterile inflammatory arthritis that follows an infection at a different site, commonly enteric or urogenital. It is classified as a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy.
ReA is formerly known as Reiter syndrome/disease, which is the combination of urethritis, arthritis and conjunctivitis. Not all patients with ReA have Reiter syndrome (also see History and etymology).
ReA most commonly occurs in males between age 15-35 2. It has an incidence of ~1 in 100 after enteric infections.
Usually transient following infection and involving one or two large joints. The classic triad consists of:
- urethritis (cervicitis in women)
The following mnemonic can be used to remember the classic triad encountered in ReA: "Can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree''.
In ReA there is joint inflammation, bone proliferation, periostitis, and enthesitis.
ReA occurs after infections including 5-8:
- enteric: Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and less commonly enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
- sexually-transmitted: Chlamydia trachomatis
- other: brucellosis
- HLA B27 positive in ~80% of patients
Distal lower extremity involvement (MTP >> calcaneus > ankle > knee) is more prevalent than upper extremity involvement. It affects hands, wrists, and feet with a distribution that is unilateral or bilateral and asymmetric (it becomes symmetric in later stages).
It can have a very similar appearance to psoriatic arthritis with the classic features of ill-defined erosions, enthesopathy, bone proliferation, early juxta-articular osteoporosis, uniform joint space loss and fusiform soft tissue swelling 2.
Both psoriasis and reactive arthritis can cause a sacroiliitis, which is usually asymmetric 3.
History and etymology
The disease was originally named after Hans Reiter. However, recently this term has not been encouraged as he was a convicted Nazi war criminal who performed experiments of a new typhus vaccine that caused the death of hundreds of prisoners of war 9.
- ReA has different distribution with hand involvement, which is common in psoriatic arthritis, very uncommon 2
- spondyloarthropathy and sacroiliitis are identical in both conditions
disseminated gonococcal infection
- causes a septic arthritis c.f. sterile process of ReA
- seronegative spondyloarthritides
- Jaccoud arthropathy
- juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- lyme arthritis
- rheumatoid arthritis
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- erosive osteoarthritis
- osteoarthritis (mnemonic)
- primary cystic arthrosis of the hip
- rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip
- secondary synovial osteochondromatosis
- miscellaneous disorders
- related articles
- 1. Klecker RJ, Weissman BN. Imaging features of psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's syndrome. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2003;7 (2): 115-26. doi:10.1055/s-2003-41345 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Provenzale JM, Nelson RC, Vinson EN. Radiology Case Review. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN:0781778603. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Mandell J. Core Radiology: A Visual Approach to Diagnostic Imaging. Cambridge University Press. ISBN:1107679680. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Jacobson JA, Girish G, Jiang Y et-al. Radiographic evaluation of arthritis: inflammatory conditions. Radiology. 2008;248 (2): 378-89. doi:10.1148/radiol.2482062110 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Ajene AN, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. Enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: a systematic review of Campylobacter, salmonella and Shigella-associated reactive arthritis. J Health Popul Nutr. 2014;31 (3): 299-307. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 6. Ritchlin CT, FitzGerald O. Psoriatic and reactive arthritis. Mosby. ISBN:0323036228. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 7. Melville C. Sexual and Reproductive Health at a Glance. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN:1118460723. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 8. Pope JE, Krizova A, Garg AX et-al. Campylobacter reactive arthritis: a systematic review. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;37 (1): 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2006.12.006 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 9. Wallace DJ, Weisman M. Should a war criminal be rewarded with eponymous distinction?: the double life of hans reiter (1881-1969). J Clin Rheumatol. 2012;6 (1): 49-54. Pubmed citation