References are essential to the pursuit of the high academic standards we are aiming for at 

  • each article should have at least 3-4 references
    • cases may also often have references, and when used the style should follow as for articles
  • all reference material should be cited in the reference section
  • references should be sought in the following descending order of preference:
    1. online journals with complete text available without subscription (e.g. Radiology and RadioGraphics)
    2. online journals with complete text available but requiring subscription
    3. textbooks
  • websites are generally discouraged: content is often not verified (Wikipedia), may change dynamically (eMedicine) and links may become stale

When citing the reference from the text:

  • use a superscript reference 1
  • add a space between the text and the reference 
  • if it is at the end of a sentence, it should be before the full-stop (period), which itself should not be superscripted 1.
  • if it precedes a list, it should be before the colon 1:
  • if there are multiple references, they should be separated by a comma, but without a space 1,2
  • if there are more than two consecutive reference numbers use the first and last numbers connected by a dash 1-3
    • note that if only two consecutive numbers then only separate by a comma 1,2
  • if a combination of multiple references with some, but not all, numbers consecutive 1,2,4-6
  • each new reference should be preceded by a number followed by a full stop/period, starting from '1.', even if there is only one reference
    • each additional reference is assigned a number one higher than the highest pre-existing reference

1. Ferguson EC, Krishnamurthy R, Oldham SA. Classic imaging signs of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. (2007) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 27 (5): 1323-34. <a href="">doi:10.1148/rg.275065148</a> - <a href="">Pubmed</a> <span class="ref_v4"></span>

The best way to simply do this is by using

Simply plug in the URL of the article or PDF, the pubmed ID (PMID) or ISBN into the reference box and click "search". 

It will work in the vast majority of cases and we are constantly working to make the system better, so as we find references that fail, we try to fix them.

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Article information

rID: 6480
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Citation generator
  • Citation style
  • Referencing
  • Reference
  • Citations
  • Citation
  • Citing articles

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