Refraction artifact can occur when a transmitted pulse strikes an interface at a non-perpendicular angle. The difference in propagation speeds between the two tissues can cause refraction to occur. Should the refracted incident sound wave strike a reflector and cause an echo to return to the transducer, this may be displayed at an incorrect location as the transducer assumes all echoes have traveled along a direct path.
Refraction artifact should resolve if the transducer is moved such that the incident pulse is perpendicular to the interface.
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