Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin.

When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidney. The kidney wrongly senses the reduced flow as low blood pressure (via juxtaglomerular apparatus) and releases a large amount of renin, that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II with the help of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in lungs. Angiotensin II is responsible for vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone which causes sodium and water retention, thus resulting in secondary hypertension.

Renal artery stenosis may be caused by several pathological processes:

Occurrence is not uncommon following a renal transplant.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound although most freely available, cheap and often used first line, is relatively operator dependent and time consuming.

  • increased renal arterial resistive index (RI): a cut-off value of 0.7 may be a good approximation in clinical practice 9 
  • RI difference between kidneys >5% 9
  • increased peak systolic velocity (PSV): some advocate 180cm/s 4
  • increased renal-interlobar ratio (RIR): some advocate values greater than 5 3
  • increased renal aortic ratio (RAR) i.e. PSVrenal/PSVaorta: usually taken as >3.5 although some advocate >3  4
  • turbulent flow in post stenotic area
  • pulsus parvus et tardus waveform (slow-rising) due to stenosis
CT angiography

The three-dimensional reconstruction of the renal vascular tree provides a reliable method of visualizing the whole vascular tree. Images are acquired with thin collimation and bolus tracking on the abdominal aorta. Sensitivity and specificity varying between 90 to 99% have been reported 7.  Both the raw data and 3D reconstructions should be viewed. Additionally, supernumerary arteries may be identified.

MR angiography

Different imaging methods can be used:

  • time of flight (TOF): whereby the high velocity of the blood jet at the level of stenosis appears as a loss of signal (black)
  • phase contrast technique
  • contrast enhanced MRA: gadolinium is used as a contrast agent

Three-dimensional reconstruction technique offers a sensitivity and specificity values around 90 to 100% 7. In some cases, renal impairment does not permit the use of contrast, in which case TOF imaging is beneficial.

ACE inhibitor scintigraphy
  • affected kidney with renovascular hypertension shows impaired function due to ACE inhibition; based on this principle scintigraphy has been very much useful for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis
  • it is performed by IV administration of enalapril maleate after 15 minutes
  • sequential images and scintigraphic curves are drawn for renal cortex and pelvis; renal uptake is measured for every 1-2 min interval after giving IV injection
  • typical isotopes used are Tc-99m MAG3, Tc-99m DTPA or I-123 0-iodohippurate 6
  • scintigram will be interpreted as either low, intermediate or high probability

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Article Information

rID: 3871
Sections: Gamuts, Approach
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Renal artery stenosis: differential diagnosis
  • Renal arterial stenosis
  • Renal artery stenosis (RAS)
  • Renal artery stenoses
  • Renal arterial stenoses

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    Case 1: with delayed nephrogam
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    Case 2: CE-MRA
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     Case 5
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    Case 6: on right with post-stenotic dilatation
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    Case 6: with parvus-tardus waveform
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    After stenting
    Case 8: post stenting
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