Renal hydatid infection is extremely rare and is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid disease1. Infection is caused by a parasitic zoonosis with the Echinococcus tape worm. (see Hydatid disease for a general discussion). The kidneys are the most commonly affected urinary organs, but bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles and testis can also be involved2.
Clinical manifestations are variable, and have polymorph symptomatology which is rarely specific3.Hydaturia is a pathognomonic sign of renal hydatidosis and results from the rupture of a hydatid cyst into the collecting system1.
The plain x-ray may show a soft-tissue mass or a ring-shaped calcification in the renal region.
May demonstrate caliceal distortion, caliectasis and a non-functioning kidney, possibly caused by the mass effect of cystic lesions.
May show anechoic lesions with well-defined margins.
CT is more accurate and sensitive2,and shows a unilocular or multilocular cysts with or without peripheral calcifications1. CT may also show a detached membrane, a multiloculated cyst with mixed internal density, and daughter cysts with lower density than the maternal matrix2.
The surgical approach remains the treatment of choice; particularly using laparoscopy and the resection should be mostly conservative3.
- 1. Haaga JR, Boll D. CT and MRI of the whole body. Mosby. (2009) ISBN:0323053750. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Mokhtar AA, Sayyah AA, Al-Hindi H et-al. Isolated renal hydatid disease in a non-endemic country: a single centre experience. Can Urol Assoc J. 2013;6 (6): E224-9. doi:10.5489/cuaj.10049 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Rami M, Khattala K, Elmadi A et-al. The renal hydatid cyst: report on 4 cases. Pan Afr Med J. 2012;8: 31. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation