Renal hydatid infection is extremely rare manifestation of hydatid disease.
For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.
Renal hydatid infection is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid disease 1.
Clinical manifestations are variable, and have polymorph symptomatology which is rarely specific 3. Hydaturia is a pathognomonic sign of renal hydatidosis and results from the rupture of a hydatid cyst into the collecting system 1.
Infection is caused by a parasitic zoonosis with the Echinococcus tape worm. The kidneys are the most commonly affected urinary organs, but bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles and testis can also be involved 2.
The plain x-ray may show a soft-tissue mass or a ring-shaped calcification in the renal region.
May demonstrate caliceal distortion, caliectasis and a non-functioning kidney, possibly caused by the mass effect of cystic lesions.
May show anechoic lesions with well-defined margins.
CT is more accurate and sensitive 2,and shows a unilocular or multilocular cysts with or without peripheral calcifications 1. CT may also show a detached membrane, a multiloculated cyst with mixed internal density, and daughter cysts with lower density than the maternal matrix 2.
Treatment and prognosis
The surgical approach remains the treatment of choice; particularly using laparoscopy and the resection should be mostly conservative 3.
- 1. Haaga JR, Boll D. CT and MRI of the whole body. Mosby. (2009) ISBN:0323053750. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Mokhtar AA, Sayyah AA, Al-Hindi H et-al. Isolated renal hydatid disease in a non-endemic country: a single centre experience. Can Urol Assoc J. 2013;6 (6): E224-9. doi:10.5489/cuaj.10049 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Rami M, Khattala K, Elmadi A et-al. The renal hydatid cyst: report on 4 cases. Pan Afr Med J. 2012;8: 31. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation