Renal hydatid infection

Last revised by Mohammad Taghi Niknejad on 1 Jan 2024

Renal hydatid infection is a very rare manifestation of hydatid disease.

For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease

Renal hydatid infection is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid disease 1.

Clinical manifestations are variable and have polymorph symptomatology, which is rarely specific. 3. Hydaturia is a pathognomonic sign of renal hydatidosis and results from the rupture of a hydatid cyst into the collecting system 1. Hydaturia is seen in only 10-20% of renal hydatidosis and is often microscopic. Macroscopic hydaturia may also observed rarely 4.

A parasitic zoonosis with the Echinococcus tapeworm causes infection. The kidneys are the most commonly affected urinary organs, but bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles and testis can also be involved 2.

The plain x-ray may show a soft-tissue mass or a ring-shaped calcification in the renal region.

May demonstrate caliceal distortion, caliectasis and a non-functioning kidney, possibly caused by the mass effect of cystic lesions.

May show anechoic lesions with well-defined margins.

CT is more accurate and sensitive 2 and shows unilocular or multilocular cysts with or without peripheral calcifications 1. CT may also show a detached membrane, a multiloculated cyst with mixed internal density, and daughter cysts with lower density than the maternal matrix 2.

It should reminded that if a renal hydatid cyst presents as a multiseptate cystic renal lesion, the Bosniak classification shouldn't be used because the renal cyst-like lesions with infectious, inflammatory and vascular etiology are not classified with the Bosniak system 5.

The surgical approach remains the treatment of choice; particularly using laparoscopy and the resection should be mostly conservative 3.

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