Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

Last revised by Dr Henry Knipe on 17 May 2022

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are an extremely rare renal tumor, with only six cases reported in the literature (c. 2022) 1

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma represents <1% of the total reported cases of primary renal cancers. The most affected population is male adults with a mean age of 52.5 years 1

Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as hematuria, flank pain, and palpable abdominal mass 1

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma grossly appears as a solid tan-to-grey cut surface with a large zone of necrosis and increased mitotic activity 1,3,4.  

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is frequently associated with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma 2

  • heterogenous, exophytic mass with calcification 5

Surgical resection is currently the only curative treatment for renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumor is highly aggressive with a high risk of metastatic development, thus resulting in a poor prognosis ref

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