Reporting and Data Systems (disambiguation)
In recent years there has been a proliferation of Reporting and Data Systems (RADS), which have been proposed - and in many cases widely adopted - as standardized systems for the reporting of imaging of various body organs, often, but certainly not always, with a focus on oncological disease 2. These systems also help departments introduce structured reporting 4.
- AI TI-RADS: Artificial Intelligence-Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System 15
- BI-RADS: Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2
- C-RADS: CT Colonography Reporting and Data System 2
- CAD-RADS: Coronary Artery Disease-Imaging Reporting and Data System 2
- CO-RADS: COVID-19 Reporting and Data System 16
- COVID-RADS: COVID-19 Imaging Reporting and Data System 5
- GI-RADS: Gynecologic Imaging-Reporting and Data System 11
- LI-RADS: Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2
- LU-RADS: Lung-Reporting and Data System 13,14
- Lung-RADS: Lung Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2,14
- MET-RADS: METastasis-Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer 7
- MY-RADS: Myeloma Response-Assessment and Diagnosis System 6
- NI-RADS: Neck Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2
- O-RADS: Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System 10,11
- PI-RADS: Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2
- RI-RADS: Reason for exam Imaging-Reporting and Data System 9
- TI-RADS: Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System 2
- VI-RADS: Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System 12
In addition, is a coronary artery calcification scoring system, which strangely has been called the CAC-DRS: Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System, and not CAC-RADS: Coronary Artery Calcium-Reporting and Data System.
A standardized system for the reporting of head injury cases is being developed by the American College of Radiology. Specific details of the proposed HI-RADS: Head Injury Imaging Reporting and Data System have not been published as yet 3. A system provisionally named the Traumatic Brain Imaging Reporting and Data System (TBI-RADS) has also been discussed. It is likely that HI-RADS and TBI-RADS are synonymous as the same organizations are involved in both 8.
History and etymology
In 1993 the American College of Radiology proposed the BI-RADS: Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, a standardized lexicon for the reporting of mammography, which was developed on the back of the established 5-tier ACR system. The aim of BI-RADS was to improve distinction between benign and malignant disease, to remove ambiguity from radiology reports, permit automated auditing of data and improve clinical discourse with the referrers 1.
- 1. Rao AA, Feneis J, Lalonde C, Ojeda-Fournier H. A Pictorial Review of Changes in the BI-RADS Fifth Edition. (2016) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 36 (3): 623-39. doi:10.1148/rg.2016150178 - Pubmed
- 2. An JY, Unsdorfer KML, Weinreb JC. BI-RADS, C-RADS, CAD-RADS, LI-RADS, Lung-RADS, NI-RADS, O-RADS, PI-RADS, TI-RADS: Reporting and Data Systems. (2019) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 39 (5): 1435-1436. doi:10.1148/rg.2019190087 - Pubmed
- 3. Head Injury Imaging Reporting & Data System. American College of Radiology, 2020. www.acr.org/Clinical-Resources/Reporting-and-Data-Systems/HI-RADS. https://www.acr.org/Clinical-Resources/Reporting-and-Data-Systems/HI-RADS [retrieved 30 April 2020].
- 4. Goldberg-Stein S, Walter WR, Amis ES, Scheinfeld MH. Implementing a Structured Reporting Initiative Using a Collaborative Multistep Approach. (2017) Current problems in diagnostic radiology. 46 (4): 295-299. doi:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2016.12.004 - Pubmed
- 5. Sana Salehi, Aidin Abedi, Sudheer Balakrishnan, Ali Gholamrezanezhad. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) imaging reporting and data system (COVID-RADS) and common lexicon: a proposal based on the imaging data of 37 studies. (2020) European Radiology. doi:10.1007/s00330-020-06863-0 - Pubmed
- 6. Messiou C, Hillengass J, Delorme S, Lecouvet FE, Moulopoulos LA, Collins DJ, Blackledge MD, Abildgaard N, Østergaard B, Schlemmer HP, Landgren O, Asmussen JT, Kaiser MF, Padhani A. Guidelines for Acquisition, Interpretation, and Reporting of Whole-Body MRI in Myeloma: Myeloma Response Assessment and Diagnosis System (MY-RADS). (2019) Radiology. 291 (1): 5-13. doi:10.1148/radiol.2019181949 - Pubmed
- 7. Padhani AR, Lecouvet FE, Tunariu N, Koh DM, De Keyzer F, Collins DJ, Sala E, Schlemmer HP, Petralia G, Vargas HA, Fanti S, Tombal HB, de Bono J. METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer: Practical Guidelines for Acquisition, Interpretation, and Reporting of Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based Evaluations of Multiorgan Involvement in Advanced Prostate Cancer. (2017) European urology. 71 (1): 81-92. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2016.05.033 - Pubmed
- 8. Schweitzer AD, Niogi SN, Whitlow CT, Tsiouris AJ. Traumatic Brain Injury: Imaging Patterns and Complications. (2019) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 39 (6): 1571-1595. doi:10.1148/rg.2019190076 - Pubmed
- 9. Abedi A, Tofighi S, Salehi S, Latterman PT, Basques KD, Gholamrezanezhad A. Reason for exam Imaging Reporting and Data System (RI-RADS): A grading system to standardize radiology requisitions. (2019) European journal of radiology. 120: 108661. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.108661 - Pubmed
- 10. American College of Radiology Committee on O-RADS™ (Ovarian and Adnexal) O-RADS Assessment Categories. Available at https://www.acr.org/Clinical-Resources/Reporting-and-Data-Systems/O-Rads. [accessed on 25 January 2021].
- 11. Basha MAA, Metwally MI, Gamil SA, Khater HM, Aly SA, El Sammak AA, Zaitoun MMA, Khattab EM, Azmy TM, Alayouty NA, Mohey N, Almassry HN, Yousef HY, Ibrahim SA, Mohamed EA, Mohamed AEM, Afifi AHM, Harb OA, Algazzar HY. Comparison of O-RADS, GI-RADS, and IOTA simple rules regarding malignancy rate, validity, and reliability for diagnosis of adnexal masses. (2021) European radiology. 31 (2): 674-684. doi:10.1007/s00330-020-07143-7 - Pubmed
- 12. Pecoraro M, Takeuchi M, Vargas HA, Muglia VF, Cipollari S, Catalano C, Panebianco V. Overview of VI-RADS in Bladder Cancer. (2020) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 214 (6): 1259-1268. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.22763 - Pubmed
- 13. Manos D, Seely JM, Taylor J, Borgaonkar J, Roberts HC, Mayo JR. The Lung Reporting and Data System (LU-RADS): a proposal for computed tomography screening. (2014) Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes. 65 (2): 121-34. doi:10.1016/j.carj.2014.03.004 - Pubmed
- 14. Sánchez M, Benegas M, Vollmer I. Management of incidental lung nodules <8 mm in diameter. (2018) Journal of thoracic disease. 10 (Suppl 22): S2611-S2627. doi:10.21037/jtd.2018.05.86 - Pubmed
- 15. Wildman-Tobriner B, Buda M, Hoang JK, Middleton WD, Thayer D, Short RG, Tessler FN, Mazurowski MA. Using Artificial Intelligence to Revise ACR TI-RADS Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules: Diagnostic Accuracy and Utility. (2019) Radiology. 292 (1): 112-119. doi:10.1148/radiol.2019182128 - Pubmed
- 16. Prokop M, van Everdingen W, van Rees Vellinga T et-al. CO-RADS - A categorical CT assessment scheme for patients with suspected COVID-19: definition and evaluation. (2020) Radiology. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020201473 - Pubmed