Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours

Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Andrew Dixon et al.

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours (GCT) include:

  • Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1)
  • undescended testis
    • 10-40x increased risk 
    • around 10% of all tumours are associated with undescended testis
    • higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal
    • orchidopexy prior to puberty can reduce the tumour risk
    • increased risk in the contralateral normally descended testis
  • previous tumour in contralateral testis
  • family history of testicular germ cell tumour
    • 4x increase if father affected
    • 9x if brother affected
  • testicular microlithiasis
    • ~8x increased risk of GCT in symptomatic testicle with microlithiasis 1
    • no increased risk found in asymptomatic testicles therefore screening is unlikely to be useful
    • overall, microlithiasis is present in around 50% of GCT cases, but it is also very common in patients without cancer
  • testicular dysgenesis 
  • other risk factors may include
    • infections such as HIV, orchitis 
    • history of trauma 
    • organ transplant immunosuppression

See also

Share article

Article Information

rID: 10149
System: Urogenital
Section: Gamuts
Tags: refs, cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Testicular germ cell tumour risk factors
  • Testicular GCT risk factors
  • Risk factors for testicular GCT
  • Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumour

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.