Roentgenology - the borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram (book)

Last revised by Daniel J Bell on 27 Oct 2021

Roentgenology - The borderlands of the normal and early pathological in the skiagram, is a classic radiology text, which was first published in 1910, and has been in continual print ever since. The original writer was Alban Köhler, a pioneering German radiologist, and it was the first book to cover the very broad spectrum of radiological anatomical variants; or in other words the borderlands between the normal and abnormal radiographic findings. Skiagram is an archaic term for radiograph.


This tome has been published in its original German since 1910, and is currently in its 14th edition. The English translation is itself on its 5th edition (2002) 2. In addition it has been published in French (three editions), Italian (three) and Spanish (two) iterations.

Unsurprisingly the title has been tweaked over its long history, and its current monicker, in English, is Borderlands of Normal and Early Pathological Findings in Skeletal Radiography.


Alban Köhler is now best remembered for his eponymous condition, Köhler disease. However his contribution to radiology is much greater than this. He was one of the first radiologists to recognize the importance - and sheer abundance - of anatomical variants. And the associated pitfalls of mistaking the normal for the diseased, and vice-versa.

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