Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Craig Hacking had no recorded disclosures.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Travis Fahrenhorst-Jones had no financial relationships to ineligible companies to disclose.View Travis Fahrenhorst-Jones's current disclosures
The scapulothoracic joint (also known as the scapulocostal joint) is not an anatomical joint as it does not refer to two opposing bones, but to a physiological joint of the pectoral girdle. The scapula is held against the thoracic wall by many muscles and the strut of the clavicle secondarily attaches it to the manubrium.
The scapulothoracic joint allows for complex scapular movements in relation to the thoracic cage: elevation and depression, protraction and retraction, and medial and lateral rotation.
The scapulothoracic joint allows for six distinct movements facilitated by the following muscles:
protraction: upper and middle fibers of serratus anterior and pectoralis minor
lateral rotation: upper fibers of trapezius and lower fibers of serratus anterior
passive: gravity with controlled relaxation of trapezius and serratus anterior
active: levator scapulae and rhomboids