Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,970 results found
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Finger pathology

Finger pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the hand and foot digits. Congenital brachydactyly - short digits brachymetatarsia - short metatarsal arachnodactyly - elongated, thin "spider-like" digits 1 polydactyly (...
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Brachydactyly

Brachydactyly (BD) essentially refers to short digits. It is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait (all the types). The clinical spectrum can widely range from minor digital hypoplasia to complete aplasia. As a group, it most commonly involves the middle phalanx 2. Single or multiple bo...
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Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
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Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament

Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is, as the name suggests, avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) from its humeral insertion. It can be associated with a bony avulsion fracture in which case it is referred to as bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligamen...
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SPECT vs PET

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are nuclear medicine imaging techniques which provide metabolic and functional information unlike CT and MRI. They have been combined with CT and MRI to provide detailed anatomical and metabolic informatio...
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Broca aphasia

Broca aphasia, also known as expressive aphasia or motor aphasia, is a type of non-fluent aphasia usually caused by injury (e.g. stroke) to Broca's area and the surrounding frontal fields 1,2. Clinical presentation Broca aphasia has classic effects on speech 1,2: fluency: non-fluent and effor...
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Hill-Sachs defect

Hill-Sachs defects are a posterolateral humeral head depression fracture, resulting from the impaction with the anterior glenoid rim, and indicative of an anterior glenohumeral dislocation. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Terminology A Hill-Sachs defect is the term...
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Glenoid labrum

The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure that attaches as a rim to the articular cartilage of the glenoid fossa and serves to deepen and increase the surface area. In this capacity, it acts as a static stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint, preventing dislocation and subluxation at th...
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Transient osteoporosis

Transient osteoporosis is a self-limited condition characterized by reparative bone remodeling, which can affect all weight-bearing joints, being most common in the femoral head. For detailed description of that condition see transient ostoporosis of the hip.  Clinical presentation Typical sym...
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Atlanto-axial subluxation

Atlanto-axial subluxation is a disorder of C1-C2 causing impairment in rotation of the neck. The anterior facet of C1 is fixed on the facet of C2. It may be associated with dislocation of the lateral mass of C1 on C2. Rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation is more common in pediatric patients younge...
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Varicocele grading on color Doppler

Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
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Circumaortic left renal vein

Circumaortic left renal vein, also known as circumaortic renal collar is an anomaly of left renal vein when a supernumerary or accessory left renal vein passes posterior to the aorta, apart from the normal renal vein passing anterior to the aorta. This anomaly is potentially hazardous, if unreco...
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Radiographic features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonics: 5 Ds or 6 Ds (separating disorganization and dislocation) Mnemonic density change (subchondral osteopenia or sclerosis) destruction (osseous fragmentation and resorption) debris (intra-articula...
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Bell palsy

Bell palsy, also known as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, is characterized by rapid onset facial nerve paralysis, often with resolution in 6-8 weeks, without an identifiable etiology. As there are numerous causes of facial nerve palsy, many acute in onset, it is currently a diagnosis of ...
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Necrotizing fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis (rare plural: necrotizing fasciitides) refers to a rapidly progressive and often fatal aggressive necrotizing soft tissue infection primarily involving and spreading along the fascia. Terminology As fascia is variably defined, there can be confusion as to what it constitu...
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Abdominal ectopic pregnancy

Abdominal ectopic pregnancies are an extremely rare type of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology They are thought to represent ~1% of all ectopic pregnancies 6 with an estimated incidence of 1:1000-10,000 births. Pathology It is often thought that they most frequently result from a tubal rupture ...
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Fibulotalocalcaneal ligament

The fibulotalocalcaneal ligament is part of the deep crural fascia and runs medially from the posteromedial border of the lateral malleolus (anterior malleolar groove) with two sheet-like laminae that insert on the superolateral surface of the calcaneus and the lateral tubercle of the posterior ...
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Atypical meningioma

Atypical meningioma refers to a more aggressive form of meningioma and denotes a WHO grade 2 tumor (along with two histological variants, clear cell meningioma and chordoid meningioma). Atypical meningiomas account for 20-30% of all meningiomas 1,2.  It should be noted that epidemiology, clinic...
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Basivertebral nerve

The basivertebral nerve supplies the vertebral endplates and can be a target for treating back pain.  Gross anatomy The basivertebral nerve is a paired nerve arising from the sinuvertebral nerve. It ascends from its origin to enter the spinal canal, traversing centrally 1. It courses with the ...
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Transient osteoporosis of the hip

Transient osteoporosis of the hip, also known as (transient) bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip, is a self-limiting clinical entity of unknown cause, although almost certainly a vascular basis and possible overactivity of the sympathetic system exists. It presents a synonym of the subchondral...
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Sturge-Weber syndrome (mnemonic)

Some key findings pertaining to Sturge-Weber syndrome may be recalled using the following mnemonics: STURGE CAPS 8 Cs Mnemonics STURGE CAPS S: seizures, sporadic T: tram track gyriform calcification; trigeminal territory port-wine stain U: unilateral weakness (hemiparesis - contralateral ...
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Central nervous system germinoma

Intracranial germinomas, also known as dysgerminomas or extra-gonadal seminomas, are a type of germ cell tumor and are predominantly seen in pediatric populations. They tend to occur in the midline, either at the pineal region (majority) or along the floor of the third ventricle/suprasellar regi...
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Testicular descent

Testicular descent occurs after the fourth month of fetal life. The testes are derived from the gonadal ridge medial to the mesonephric ridge of the intermediate cell mass. An elongated diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity, the processus vaginalis precedes the testis through the inguinal canal ...
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Vertebral vascular foramen

Vertebral vascular foramina, also known as Hahn canal or cleft, are normal findings seen on cross-sectional imaging and should not be mistaken for a fracture, especially in the setting of trauma. They transmit: basivertebral veins (forms Hahn's canal): foramen is seen on the posterior surface o...
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Coronary arterial ectasia

Coronary arterial ectasia (CAE) refers to diffuse dilatation of the coronary arteries. Under some classification systems, there is some overlap with the term coronary arterial aneurysms (which is a more focal dilatation). Terminology It is often defined as dilatation of an arterial segment to ...
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Sinuvertebral nerve

The sinuvertebral nerve, also known as the recurrent meningeal nerve, or the recurrent nerve of Luschka, is a branch of the primary ventral ramus and grey ramus communicans in the intervertebral foramen. It enters the spinal canal and supplies the posterior portion of the annulus of the interver...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
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Ultrasound appearances of hepatic metastases

Ultrasound appearance of hepatic metastases can have bewildering variation, and the presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions. Radiographic features Ultrasound Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the hepatic metastases and the likely p...
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Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumors 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are helpful in detecting hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with liver me...
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Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma

Myxoid degeneration of leiomyoma is one of the rarer types of degeneration that can occur in a uterine leiomyoma. This term is related but not identical to the term myxoid uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology While this type of degeneration is generally considered rare, the highest prevalence for t...
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Cystic degeneration of a leiomyoma

Cystic degeneration is an uncommon type of degeneration that a uterine leiomyoma (fibroid) can undergo. Epidemiology  This type of degeneration is thought to represent ~4% of all types of uterine leiomyoma degeneration. Pathology When the leiomyoma increases in size, the vascular supply to i...
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Hyaline degeneration of a leiomyoma

Hyaline degeneration is the most common form of degeneration that can occur in a uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in up to 60% of uterine leiomyomas 3. Pathology As with many other types of degeneration, it happens when fibroids outgrow their blood supply 4. Hyaline de...
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Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form.  Terminology The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favor and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, pr...
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Supraoptic nucleus

The supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains neurosecretory cells that produce the hormone vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone (ADH).  Gross anatomy The supraoptic nucleus is found in the medial area of the anterior hypothalamus, sitting superior to the optic tract 1. The hormones travel down the axons...
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Ultrasound of the wrist

Ultrasound is a useful imaging modality for evaluation of the wrist, allowing high-resolution imaging of anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joints, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the wrist with ultrasound. The exa...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest x-rays in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely relegated to one of historical and academic interest. However, they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnosis cannot ...
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Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
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Single pleural based mass (differential)

The differential for a single pleural mass is essentially the same as that for multiple pleural masses with the addition of a few entities.  tumors pleural tumors solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (pleural fibroma) mesothelioma localized mediastinal malignant mesothelioma metastatic pl...
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Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare benign pleural-based tumors that account for <5% of all tumors involving the pleura. Terminology Throughout much of the twentieth century, there was a continual debate about the precise histology of both normal pleura and pleural tumors. The prope...
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Pleural metastases

Pleural metastases account for the vast majority of malignant lesions of the pleura and are more common than malignant mesothelioma. Clinical presentation The infiltration of the pleura usually manifests as pleural effusion, which is the first manifestation of pleural metastasis. In addition t...
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Intercostal nerve neurilemmoma

Intercostal nerve neurilemmomas, also known as intercostal nerve schwannoma or neurinoma, are nerve sheath encapsulated tumors affecting intercostal nerves.   Please refer to the article on schwannomas for a broad discussion about these tumors.  Epidemiology They account for <10% of primary n...
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Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumors 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma with...
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Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma, also known as malignant mesothelioma, is an aggressive malignant tumor of the mesothelium. Most tumors arise from the pleura, and so this article will focus on pleural mesothelioma. Given the presence of the mesothelium in different parts of the body, mesothelioma can arise in var...
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Posterior pituitary

The posterior pituitary (also known as neurohypophysis) is a direct extension from the hypothalamus and does not synthesize any hormones, but rather releases oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin) which has traveled down the infundibulum in vesicles termed Herring bodies. The cell bodies reside into hyp...
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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus (plural: hypothalami) is located, as the name would suggest, below the thalamus, and is intimately associated with both the limbic system and the pituitary gland.  Gross anatomy Boundaries Its boundaries are in some places poorly defined (outlined in blue in Figure 2): anter...
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Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland (a.k.a. hypophysis cerebri), together with its connections to the hypothalamus, acts as the main endocrine interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.  Gross anatomy The pituitary gland sits atop the base of the skull in a concavity within the sph...
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Paraventricular nucleus

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains neurosecretory cells that produce the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).  Gross anatomy The paraventricular nucleus is found in the medial area of the anterior hypothalamus immediately medial to the column of the fornix. Axons p...
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Bone infarction

Bone infarction is a term used to refer to osteonecrosis within the metaphysis or diaphysis of a bone. Necrosis is a type of cell death due to irreversible cell injury, which can be recognized microscopically by alterations in the cytoplasm (becomes eosinophilic) and in the nucleus (swelling, py...
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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterized by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta...
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Bone lesion description (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for describing bone lesions (of any type): Logical order: All Sensible People Must Make Clear/Proper Sense A: age (maturity of skeleton) S: site (bone name and location within bone) and size P: pattern of destruction (lytic lesions) M: margins (transition zone) M: matrix C: co...
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Hypoplastic right coronary artery

A hypoplastic right coronary artery refers to an underdeveloped or small-sized right coronary artery (RCA) with a narrowed lumen or a short course.   Epidemiology Associations Clinical conditions associated with a hypoplastic right coronary artery include 1,2: left coronary arterial dominanc...
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Aortic intramural hematoma

Aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to a contained hemorrhage into the aortic wall usually from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It forms part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum along with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and classical...
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Pulmonary artery intramural hematoma

Pulmonary artery intramural hematoma (PA-IMH) refers to a hemorrhage within the wall of the pulmonary arteries. It can occur alone in the setting of a thoracic aortic injury or as a complication of an acute aortic dissection for example in a setting where the posterior wall of the aortic root is...
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Stanford classification of aortic dissection

The Stanford classification, along with the DeBakey classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management 7. Both the Stanford and DeBakey systems can be used to describe all forms of an acute aortic s...
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Persistent stapedial artery

The persistent stapedial artery (PSA) is an abnormal small vessel arising from the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery and crossing through the middle ear. It results from the failure of regression of the embryonic stapedial artery.  Epidemiology The prevalence is thought to range f...
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Glenn shunt

The Glenn shunt, also known as Glenn procedure, is a palliative surgical procedure for a variety of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Rationale In this procedure, the systemic venous return is re-directed to the pulmonary circulation, bypassing the right heart 1-3. It can be used in a varie...
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Fontan procedure

The Fontan procedure is a repair surgical strategy for congenital cardiac anomalies. It is not usually used in isolation, but in combination with other repair procedures in a staged manner in an attempt to correct the underlying cardiac pathology. Rationale The procedure attempts to bypass the...
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Double inlet left ventricle

Double inlet left ventricle (DILV) describes a congenital cardiac anomaly in which both atrioventricular valves are associated with a single ventricle which demonstrates left ventricular morphology. Epidemiology This uncommon entity constituents 1% of all congenital cardiac anomalies, and is o...
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Expanded amnion sign

The expanded amnion sign has been described as a poor prognostic sign in early pregnancy, suspicious though not diagnostic of failed early pregnancy. Any visible embryo that is surrounded by an amnion (visible on transvaginal ultrasound) should also have a heartbeat, regardless of crown-rump len...
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Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
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Matrix (bone)

The matrix (plural: matrices) of the bone is used in a general pathological context to refer to the extracellular material in which the cellular components of the bone lie. Indeed the term extracellular matrix, often shortened to matrix, is used for the secreted extracellular components of any t...
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Lateral thoracic meningocele

Lateral thoracic meningoceles are a type of spinal meningocele. Pathology As with any meningocele, it results from herniation of the meninges through a foramen or a defect in the vertebral column.  Associations They are typically associated with neurofibromatosis type I but can rarely occur ...
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Stigler's law of eponymy

Stigler's law of eponymy states simply that no discovery in science is ever named for its primary originator. There are many examples of this throughout science, including the biomedical sciences. A few, such as Job syndrome or Terry Thomas sign, were deliberately named for someone other than th...
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Epidural spinal cord compression scale

The epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) scale, sometimes known eponymously as the Bilsky scale, is used to assess the degree to which vertebral body metastasis compromises the spinal canal, and whether cord compression is present. It may serve as a guide as to when intervention (radiotherapy...
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Perforating veins of the lower limb

The perforating veins of the lower limb (PV or “perforators”) are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial venous systems of the lower extremity with the deep veins where they drain. There are numerous veins in variable arrangement, connection, size...
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Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Tasty Almond Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D) Mnemonics Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Tasty Almond Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral art...
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Cervical cancer (staging)

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Classification Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma (2018) FIGO no longer includes stage 0 (Tis) I: confined to cervix uteri (extension to the corpus should be disregarded) IA: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed ...
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Subclavian artery

The subclavian arteries are asymmetric paired arteries that supply blood to the posterior cerebrum, cerebellum, posterior neck, upper limbs and the superior and anterior chest wall. Gross anatomy Origin Right and left subclavian arteries classically have different origins: right subclavian a...
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Foreign body

Foreign bodies are objects lying partially or wholly within the body that originated in the external environment. Foreign body placement is voluntary or involuntary. Although implanted medical devices represent foreign bodies in the broad sense of the term, these have their own set of articles (...
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Airway foreign bodies in adults

Adults may inadvertently or intentionally ingest foreign bodies into the airway.  
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Convolutional neural network

A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a particular implementation of a neural network used in deep learning that exclusively processes array data such as images, and is thus frequently used in machine learning applications targeted at medical images 1. Architecture A convolutional neural net...
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Pathological fracture

Pathological fractures are fractures that occur in abnormal bone and occur spontaneously or following minor trauma that would not otherwise fracture biomechanically normal bone. Terminology The term pathological fracture is usually reserved for tumors, either benign or malignant, although it h...
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Intramural bowel gas

Intramural bowel gas, also known as pneumatosis intestinalis, refers to the clinical or radiological finding of gas within the wall of the bowel. Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoid...
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Paraduodenal hernia

Paraduodenal hernias, although uncommon, have classically been the most common type of internal hernia. However, the incidence of postoperative internal hernias has been increasing recently. The two most common types, the left and right paraduodenal hernia involve small bowel herniating through ...
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Internal hernia

Internal hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are protrusions of the viscera through the peritoneum or mesentery but remaining within the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology Internal hernias have a low incidence of <1% and represent a relatively small amount of presentations, of ~5% 1. Clinical p...
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Variant hepatic arterial anatomy

Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the celiac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.  Terminology An accessor...
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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass and skeletal fragility. The World Health Organization (WHO) operationally defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density T-score less than -2.5 SD (more than 2.5 standard deviations under the young-adult mean), which ...
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Metastatic pulmonary calcification

Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is a form of pulmonary calcification where there is calcium deposition in normal lung parenchyma. It is most commonly due to chronic renal failure.  Terminology Metastatic pulmonary calcification is an unfortunate term in that "metastatic" suggests a ma...
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CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Mullerian and celomic epithelial-derived cell types and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section belo...
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Catamenial pneumothorax

Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare type of pneumothorax and is characterized by the recurrent accumulation of air in the thoracic space related to menstruation. Epidemiology It may represent up to one-third of women with spontaneous pneumothoraces 1. Patient history may or may not be positive f...
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Chronic maxillary atelectasis

Chronic maxillary atelectasis is a descriptive term that is characterized by a persistent decrease in the maxillary sinus volume due to inward bowing of its walls. Terminology It is not considered synonymous with - but can include the term silent sinus syndrome, typically when there is also sp...
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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus merely denotes an increase in the volume of CSF and thus of the cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly). Terminology Although hydrocephalus is typically referred to as either being "obstructive" or "communicating", this can lead to confusion as to the underlying cause of ventricul...
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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe is by far the largest of the four lobes of the cerebrum (other lobes: parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe), and is responsible for many of the functions which produce voluntary and purposeful action. Gross anatomy The frontal lobe is the largest lobe accounting fo...
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Broca's area

Broca's area (Brodmann area 44) is an area of the lateral frontal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the production of speech. Gross anatomy Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis and pars triangularis) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior...
Article

Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area (Brodmann area 22) is an area of the posterior temporal lobe in the dominant hemisphere concerned with the receptive components of speech. Gross anatomy Wernicke's area is located in the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the posterior commissure line. Relations It is boun...
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Wernicke aphasia

Wernicke aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia or sensory aphasia, is a type of fluent aphasia usually caused by injury (e.g. stroke) to the dominant posterior temporal lobe (Wernicke's area) 1,2. Clinical presentation fluency: fluent speech, but often disorganized with paraphasias and neol...
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Alexia

Alexia (or acquired dyslexia) is a neurological term refers to an acquired impairment of reading resulting from damage of critical brain areas. Clinical presentation Alexia can manifest itself as an impairment of oral reading and reading comprehension alike and can occur in combination with va...
Article

Perugini grading scale

The Perugini grading scale is a semi-quantitative method of scoring cardiac uptake following injection of 99mTc-DPD, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate or 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy in the investigation of cardiac amyloidosis (particularly ATTR amyloidosis). The grading scale visually compares tracer uptake in th...
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Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis (plural: amyloidoses) is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Pathology Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteina...
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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. This provides localized targeted internal radiation. Brachytherapy has been...
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Little leaguer's elbow

The little leaguer's elbow was initially coined to describe medial epicondyle avulsion, but more recently it refers to a range of acquired elbow abnormalities in a skeletally immature patient engaged in overhead sports such as tennis, baseball, etc. Epidemiology It occurs in skeletally immatur...

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