Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15,957 results found
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Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology RPOC complicate ~1-5% of all routine vaginal deliveries 12. According to one prospective study, RPOC was ...
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Perthes disease

Perthes disease, also known as Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, refers to idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral epiphysis seen in children. It should not be confused with Perthes lesion of the shoulder. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of osteonecrosis (including sickle cell disease...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool developed by American College of Radiology that provides a widely accepted lexicon and reporting schema for imaging of the breast. It applies to mammography, ultrasound, and MRI. This article refle...
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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in...
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Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019)

The Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019), or usually simply Bosniak classification, version 2019, is a proposed update of the classic/current Bosniak criteria. The update hopes to improve on the classification's predictive power for malignancy and minimize the number of b...
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Unicornuate uterus

A unicornuate uterus or unicornis unicollis is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class II) characterized by a banana-shaped uterus usually draining into a single Fallopian tube. Epidemiology This type can account for ~10% (range 6-13%) of uterine anomalies and infertility is seen in ~12.5% (ra...
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Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant form of ovarian serous tumor, the most common type of ovarian epithelial tumor. It is the most common type of ovarian malignancy. Increasingly, high-grade serous carcinoma and low-grade serous carcinoma are recognized as distinct tumor types ra...
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Mature cystic ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumors contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and can be assessed with ultrasound or MRI.  Terminology Although they have very ...
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Prepatellar bursitis

Prepatellar bursitis is inflammation and fluid collection within the prepatellar bursa, located between the patella and the overlying subcutaneous tissue. It has been historically referred to as "housemaid's knee". Clinical presentation Main symptoms are anterior knee pain and swelling. Patho...
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Chronic ankle instability

Chronic ankle instability refers to an unstable ankle joint due to repetitive occasions of ankle instability with concomitant symptoms persisting for longer than one year after an initial ankle injury. Epidemiology Ankle injuries are common and not only in the context of sports injuries 1-4. T...
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Bennett fracture

A Bennett fracture is a fracture of the base of the thumb resulting from forced abduction of the first metacarpal. It is defined as an intra-articular two-part fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone. Radiographic features Plain radiograph two piece fracture of the base of the thumb...
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Oppenheimer ossicle

Oppenheimer ossicles are accessory ossicles associated with the facet joints found in ~4% (range 1-7%) of lumbar spines 1.  Oppenheimer ossicles are thought to arise as a result of non-union of a secondary ossification center of the articular process. They predominantly occur as a single, unila...
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CT predictors of intracerebral hemorrhage expansion

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of cerebrovascular stroke that represents an unfortunate consequence of cerebral small vessel disease and is associated with high early mortality. Certain CT markers can be used to predict intracerebral hemorrhage expansion which can help identify patient...
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Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular muscl...
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Chudley-McCullough syndrome

Chudley-McCullough syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural hearing loss and a distinctive combination of structural brain abnormalities, with relative preservation of psychomotor development. Epidemiology Chudley-McCullough syndrome...
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Photon starvation

Photon starvation is one source of streak artifact which may occur in CT. It is seen in high attenuation areas, particularly behind metal implants. Because of high attenuation, insufficient photons reach the detector. During the reconstruction process, the noise is greatly magnified in these are...
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Cerebral microhemorrhage

Cerebral microhemorrhages, or cerebral microbleeds, are small focal intracerebral hemorrhages, often only visible on susceptibility-sensitive MRI sequences. Pathology Common etiologies cavernous malformations 1,8 especially Zabramski classification type IV malformations causes include multi...
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Abdominal pain in pregnancy protocol (MRI)

The abdominal pain in pregnancy MRI protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for assessment of causes of non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the abdomen in pregnancy. Protocol specifics will va...
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Migration of intrauterine contraceptive device

Migration / displacement of an intrauterine contraceptive device is one of the complications that can occur with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). It can represent either an intra-uterine or extra-uterine migration. Most intrauterine contraceptive devices are normally positioned in t...
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Intracranial dermoid cyst

Intracranial dermoid cysts are uncommon lesions with characteristic imaging appearances. Dermoid cysts can be thought of as along the spectrum: from epidermoid cysts at one end (containing only desquamated squamous epithelium) and teratomas at the other (containing essentially any kind of tissue...
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Intracranial lipoma

Intracranial lipomas are not tumors as such, but rather a result of abnormal differentiation of embryologic meninx primitiva. They are frequently associated with abnormal development of adjacent structures. Terminology The term intracranial lipoma is used somewhat loosely. The broadest usage w...
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Crystalline lens

The crystalline lens (or simply, the lens, plural: lenses) is in the ocular globe between the posterior chamber and the vitreous body. It is transparent and biconvex in morphology, and aids the focusing of light onto the retina.  Gross anatomy Location The lens lies in the globe at the poster...
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Neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a dysfunctional urinary bladder that results from any lack of coordination between the central nervous system and the somatic nervous system, 5 including injuries to the central or peripheral nerves that control and regulate urination. Injury to the brain,...
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Colo cutaneous fistula

A colo-cutaneous fistula is a form of gut fistula where there is a fistulous communication between the colon and the skin.  Pathology It can occur from varied etiology inclusive of  trauma surgery stoma associated  inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn disease diverticulitis 2,6 appendiciti...
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Optic nerve sheath diameter

Optic nerve sheath diameter has significance in the assessment of papilledema in cases of elevated intracranial pressure. Pathology The optic nerve sheath demonstrates changes in diameter with CSF pressure changes as there is a layer of subarachnoid space between the nerve and its sheath, whic...
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Saint's triad

Saint's triad is the concurrence of hiatus hernia, cholelithiasis and colonic diverticulosis. It was named after the British-South African general surgeon, Charles Frederick Morris Saint (1886–1973) 2. Although it was first published in 1948 by C J B Muller, later Head of the Department of Radio...
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Hickam's dictum

Hickam's dictum is usually stated as "patients can have as many diseases as they damn (or darn) well please". This aphorism has been attributed to John Hickam (1914-1970) an American physician, who was Chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Indiana 1.  The importance of this d...
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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also known as lex parsimoniae), an often cited principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving. It has also been expressed as the KISS principle or "Keep it simple stupid!". It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions sh...
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Florid

Florid is a descriptive term often used in imaging reports to describe a process/appearance which is severe in degree, often following a subjective assessment.  History and etymology The term florid derives from the Latin term "floridus" meaning flowery, itself from "flos", a flower 2. From me...
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Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis, also known as chronic focal encephalitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. It is not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1....
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Oral tori

Oral tori (singular torus) are benign bony outgrowths from the maxilla and mandible: maxillary tori a.k.a. torus palatinus mandibular tori a.k.a. torus mandibularis Oral tori are subcategorised according to their shape 1: flat spindle nodular lobular Although not usually called tori, fur...
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Implantable loop recorder

Implantable loop recorders, also known as insertable cardiac monitors, are small insertable devices that continuously monitor and record cardiac rhythms. They are placed subcutaneously and used for the evaluation of patients with recurrent unexplained episodes of palpitations or syncope. Patien...
Article

Prostatomegaly

Prostatomegaly is a term used to generally describe enlargement of the prostate gland from whatever cause. Usually, the prostate is considered enlarged on imaging when its volume measures beyond 30 cc (mL).  Terminology The term prostatomegaly is often used interchangeably with benign prostati...
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Enlarged hilar periportal space sign

The enlarged hilar periportal space sign refers to the widening of the periportal space seen on MRI in early liver cirrhosis. Usage Enlarged hilar periportal space sign is one of the early signs of cirrhosis and may be used to detect fibrotic changes in the liver in patients who do not yet hav...
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Leadless cardiac pacemaker

Leadless cardiac pacemakers are a recently introduced type of cardiac conduction device. These pacemakers are self-contained right ventricular single-chamber pacemakers that are implanted percutaneously via a femoral approach 1-3. There are currently two leadless cardiac pacemakers on the market...
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PSA density

The PSA density (PSAD), is a calculation performed at diagnosis and is the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (ng/mL) divided by the volume of the prostate gland (mL), resulting in a value with the units, ng/mL2 1. Prostate volume is calculated from TRUS measurements 2,3.  Alternativel...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (P)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter P and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R -...
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Enchondroma

Enchondromas, also known as chondromas 7, are relatively common intramedullary cartilage neoplasms with benign imaging features. They share histologic features with low-grade chondrosarcoma, and are sometimes classified under the umbrella term low-grade chondral series tumors. Enchondromas acco...
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Reynolds pentad

Reynolds pentad is a combination of clinical signs found in acute cholangitis. It consists of Charcot triad 2-4: fever and/or chills RUQ pain jaundice as well as: delirium or lethargy, and shock Usefulness Sensitivity of Reynolds pentad from a large systematic review of nine studies was ...
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Benign lymphoepithelial lesions

Benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL or BLEL), also misleadingly known as AIDS-related parotid cysts (ARPC), are mixed solid and cystic lesions that enlarge the parotid glands, and are usually associated with cervical lymph node enlargement, and nasopharyngeal lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Term...
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Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to the involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without the involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well-recognized condition. Epidemiology Primary ovarian lymphoma accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumors 5. Pathology The rarity of this...
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Charcot triad

Charcot triad is the finding of pyrexia, right upper quadrant pain and jaundice, and is a traditional clinical sign of acute cholangitis. A meta-analysis of 4288 patients in 16 studies found that the sensitivity of Charcot triad for acute cholangitis was poor (36.3%) with a much better specific...
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Acute cholangitis

Acute cholangitis, or ascending cholangitis, is a form of cholangitis and refers to the acute bacterial infection of the biliary tree. It is a condition with high mortality that necessitates emergent biliary decompression.  Clinical presentation The classical presentation is the Charcot triad ...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (B)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter B and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q ...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
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Case publishing guidelines

Case publishing guidelines are here to help get an idea of the minimum set of expectations that we, as an editorial board, think are acceptable when uploading a case.  A great way to get to grips with the process of uploading cases is to check out our Creating Cases Learning Pathway.  As Radio...
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Hounsfield unit

Hounsfield units (HU) are a dimensionless unit universally used in computed tomography (CT) scanning to express CT numbers in a standardized and convenient form. Hounsfield units are obtained from a linear transformation of the measured attenuation coefficients 1. This transformation (figure 1) ...
Article

Biliary cystadenoma

Biliary cystadenomas are uncommon benign cystic neoplasms of the liver. Epidemiology Biliary cystadenomas occur predominantly in middle-aged patients and are more common in women 1. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of biliary cystadenomas is variable, depending on the size and...
Article

Cystic parotid lesions

The differential for cystic parotid lesions includes: bilateral cystic parotid lesions Warthin tumor benign lymphoepithelial lesions of HIV Sjögren syndrome sialoceles unilateral cystic parotid lesion(s) Warthin tumor sialocele first branchial cleft cyst parotid lymphangioma parotid m...
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Endometrioma

Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localized form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur in up to 10% of women of rep...
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Scaphoid fat pad sign

The scaphoid fat pad or stripe sign is defined as obliteration or lateral displacement of the normal scaphoid fat pad. A positive sign usually indicates a scaphoid fracture, although it may also be associated with a radial styloid or proximal first metacarpal fracture. Is it best visualized on p...
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Interstitial lung disease

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an umbrella term that encompasses a large number of disorders that are characterized by diffuse cellular infiltrates in a periacinar location. The spectrum of conditions included is broad, ranging from occasional self-limited inflammatory processes to severe de...
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Tuberculous spondylitis versus pyogenic spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis are both common causes of spinal infection. Imaging findings of these two diseases can be challenging to distinguish, yet crucial because the treatments for these infections are particularly different 2. Radiographic features Useful distinguishi...
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Colonic diverticulitis

Colonic diverticulitis (plural: diverticulitides), is a complication of colonic diverticulosis, and one of the presentations of diverticular disease. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially...
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Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is characterized by an abnormal relationship between the disc and the adjacent articular surfaces (condyle below with mandibular fossa and articular eminence above).  Epidemiology TMJ dysfunction is far more common in women (F:M 8:1). Clinical present...
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumors that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumors of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.001–...
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Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pub...
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Maxillary torus

Maxillary tori, cf. mandibular tori, are common benign outgrowths of bone from the maxilla which may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline of the hard palate, known as torus palatinus, or inner surface of the alveolar bone) or outwards (from the alveolar bone). They are...
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Mandibular torus

Mandibular tori (cf. maxillary tori) are common benign outgrowths of bone from the inner surface of the mandible and are usually bilateral. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic but may cause issues with eating and drinking. Pathology They are composed of compact bone, densely ...
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Torus fracture

Torus fractures, also known as buckle fractures, are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterized by bulging of the cortex. They result from trabecular compression due to an axial loading force along the long axis of the bone. They are usually seen in children, frequent...
Article

Olecranon spur

Olecranon spurs are extra-articular enthesophytes at the posterior portion of the proximal olecranon within the superficial aspect of the central triceps tendon insertion. Epidemiology Olecranon spurs are commonly seen in patients with conditions such as triceps tendinopathy, olecranon bursiti...
Article

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade destructive metastasizing PEComatous tumor 1 resulting from the proliferation of LAM cells in the lung, kidney and axial lymphatics. The disease is caused by mutations of the TSC2 or TSC1 genes and is more commonly sporadic rather than inherited. Cys...
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Dorsal defect of the patella

Dorsal defects of the patella are benign subchondral lesions of unknown etiology and a normal developmental anomaly of the patella, which can be mistaken for a pathological process such as a focus of infection or osteochondritis dissecans. Epidemiology Dorsal defect of patella occurs in males ...
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Chiari II malformation

Chiari II malformations are relatively common congenital malformations of the spine and posterior fossa characterized by myelomeningocele (lumbosacral spina bifida aperta) and a small posterior fossa with descent of the brainstem, cerebellar tonsils, and vermis through the foramen magnum. Numero...
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Enthesophyte

Enthesophytes (less commonly, enthesiophytes) are bony proliferations (spurs) that develop at an enthesis, that is at the attachment of a ligament, tendon or articular capsule onto bone. They are oriented along the direction of pull and develop in response to repetitive mechanical stress or a mo...
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Liposuction

Liposuction is a cosmetic procedure to reduce the volume of adipose tissue in the neck, arms, legs and/or abdomen. Areolar fat, a deeper layer of adipose tissue, is the main target and shows a good response to vacuum-assisted liposuction.  There are three types of this procedure 1,2: power-ass...
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Enthesis

An enthesis (plural: entheses), also known as a footprint, generally refers to the anatomic junction where connective tissue (e.g. ligament, tendon, joint capsule, bursa or a combination thereof) attach to bone. Entheses are commonly classified into two types 1: fibrous fibrocartilage Histol...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (N)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter N and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L -M - N - O - P - Q - R -...
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Appendiceal mucocele

Appendiceal mucoceles occur when there is an abnormal accumulation of mucin causing abnormal distention of the vermiform appendix due to various neoplastic or non-neoplastic causes. Epidemiology The reported prevalence at appendectomy is 0.2-0.3%. They are thought to typically present in middl...
Article

Osteochondroma

Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumors and ~35% of all benign bone tumors. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumor, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have very low malignan...
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-speci...
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Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually a part component of multi-systemic lymphoma. Primary renal lymphoma, which is defined as lymphoma involving the kidney exclusively without any manifestation of extra-renal lymphatic disease 3-5. Typical imaging findings are multiple bilateral hypodense or infiltrative r...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation, and prognosis.  See 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (M)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter M and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair, and/or sebaceous components 1. This region has the highest propensity to undergo malignant transformatio...
Article

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility)...
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease or Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. Epidemiology Traditional...
Article

Intraocular lens implant

Intraocular lens implants (IOLs) are used to replace the extracted lens as part of the standard surgical treatment for cataracts. The presence of a lens implant is known as pseudophakia (literally, "artificial lens"). Structure Knowledge of the structure of an intraocular lens implant is requi...
Article

Renal hydatid infection

Renal hydatid infection is a very rare manifestation of hydatid disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Epidemiology Renal hydatid infection is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid dise...
Article

Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus tapeworm species and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body. Epidemiology Cystic echinococcosis has a worldwide geographical distribution. The Mediterranean basin is an important endemic area 6,7. Pathology There are two main...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytomas are relatively benign renal tumors. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

Endometrial polyp

Endometrial polyps are benign nodular protrusions of the endometrial surface, and one of the entities included in a differential of endometrial thickening. Endometrial polyps can either be sessile or pedunculated. They can often be suggested on ultrasound or MRI studies but may require sonohyste...
Article

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle

Adenocarcinomas of the seminal vesicles are the most common malignant primary neoplasm of the seminal vesicles. Epidemiology Primary adenocarcinomas of the seminal vesicles are very rare 1,2 and can be observed at a wide age range 2. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria The following modified diag...
Article

Perilymphatic fistula

A perilymphatic fistula (also known as a labyrinthine fistula) is a pathologic communication between the fluid-filled space of the inner ear and the air-filled space of the middle ear, most commonly occurring at either the round or oval window. Clinical presentation Symptoms of perilymphatic ...
Article

Intrauterine contraceptive device

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) (also known as intrauterine devices (IUD) and colloquially commonly as the coil) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility pre...
Article

Black hole sign (intracerebral hemorrhage)

The black hole sign refers to the non-contrast CT appearance of acute extravasation of blood into a hematoma, for example, an intracerebral hemorrhage. It represents a well-defined hypodense region (black hole) within hyperdense hematoma and is not connected to the nearby brain parenchyma. The h...
Article

Boutonnière deformity

Boutonnière deformity is the eponymous name of a musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis presenting in a digit, with the combination of: flexion contracture of a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint extension of a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint Pathology Boutonnière deformi...
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Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis presenting in a digit of the hand, due to the combination of: hyperextension of a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion of a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint Pathology The swan neck deformity, characteriz...
Article

Haemodialysis upper limb arteriovenous fistula

Haemodialysis upper limb arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a procedure performed for haemodialysis access in those with end-stage renal failure. It connects an artery to a vein in the upper limb. This can either be a native connection or a connection using a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) ...
Article

Bell palsy

Bell palsy, also known as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, is characterized by rapid onset facial nerve paralysis, often with resolution in 6-8 weeks, without an identifiable etiology. As there are numerous causes of facial nerve palsy, many acute in onset, it is currently a diagnosis of ...
Article

Passy Muir speaking valve

Passy Muir speaking valve is a common type of one-way speaking valve, allowing patients to speak post-tracheostomy tube placement. They are used in both adults and children 1. With the valve in situ, the patient is able to inhale air normally into the lungs but on exhalation, the valve closes an...
Article

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), also known as acute hypertensive encephalopathy or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy, is a neurotoxic state that occurs secondary to the inability of the posterior circulation to autoregulate in response to acute changes in blood pressu...

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