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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,933 results found
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Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Etiology...
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Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. For the purpose of prognostication, the stations may be grouped into seven zones.  The IASLC definitions leave so...
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Haystack sign (pneumomediastinum)

The haystack sign on chest radiographs in pediatric patients is indicative of pneumomediastinum. The pediatric heart is surrounded above and below with gas, giving it an appearance of a haystack from Monet's paintings. 
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Hemorrhagic pulmonary metastases

Hemorrhagic pulmonary metastases are those which tend to be complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage within them, resulting in characteristic imaging appearances.  Metastases of some tumor histologies are more likely to hemorrhage -- knowledge of this can help refine the differential diagnoses. Path...
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Q fever pneumonia

Q fever pneumonia refers to pulmonary infection with the organism Coxiella burnetii. It is sometimes classified as an atypical pneumonia. It can occur as either sporadic or outbreak cases. Clinical presentation The clinical picture is often dominated by fever, headaches and myalgias 5. A cough...
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Subclavian vein

The subclavian veins are the major veins that drain the upper limbs. Gross anatomy Origin and course The subclavian vein is the continuation of the axillary vein as it crosses the lateral border of the 1st rib. It then arches cephalad, posterior to the medial clavicle before curving caudally ...
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Subpleural reticulation

Subpleural reticulation is a type of reticular interstitial pattern where the changes are typically in a peripheral subpleural distribution (i.e. adjacent to costal pleural surfaces, located ≤1 cm from the pleura according to some publications 4). Pathology It can arise in a number of patholog...
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Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
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Oblique fissure

The oblique fissures (also called the major fissures or greater fissures) are bilateral structures in both lungs separating the lung lobes.  Gross anatomy Right oblique fissure The superior part of the right oblique fissure separates the right upper lobe from the right lower lobe and the infe...
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Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...
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Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body, via the two venae cavae. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The...
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Thorax

The thorax (plural: thoraces) also known as the chest, refers to that anatomical region of the body containing the heart and lungs, thoracic aorta, great vessels and surrounding structures, all contained within the thoracic cavity. It also includes the thoracic skeleton, the thoracic spine, and ...
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Costoclavicular ligament

The costoclavicular ligament or rhomboid ligament (a.k.a. Halsted's ligament 2) is the major stabilizing factor of the sternoclavicular joint and is the axis of movement of the joint. Gross anatomy The costoclavicular ligament binds the inferior medial clavicle (via the rhomboid fossa) to the ...
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumors that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumors of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.001–...
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Crack lung

Crack lung is a term used to describe an acute pulmonary injury related to smoked crack cocaine. On imaging, it is characterized by interstitial and alveolar lung opacities with a diffuse distribution and commonly involving the perihilar regions.  Clinical presentation Patients present with s...
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Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
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Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of the lung and/or pleura with low malignant potential. Epidemiology It is a rare tumor, with ~50 cases reported. Patient age at presentation ranges from 25-54 years old, with a female predilection. Clinical presentation Pul...
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Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural tap or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thor...
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Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
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Lung cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and non-radiologists Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and refers to malignancy originating in the airways or pulmonary parenchyma. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic until locally advanced or metastatic disease. The m...
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Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumors 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma with...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Marijuana lung

Marijuana (cannabis or bong) lung refers to the presence of large apical bullae in patients who regularly smoke marijuana. A definite causative link between smoking marijuana and bullous lung disease has not been established, and the association may just be coincidental.  Pathology Smoking mar...
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Costal cartilage injury

Costal cartilage injuries occur in the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. They most commonly manifest as edema and fractures with the latter being the focus of this article.  Epidemiology There is little published data (c. 2021) on costal cartilage fractures. Most reporte...
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Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD) or rituximab pneumonitis is a rare non-infectious pulmonary side effect of the monoclonal CD20 antibody rituximab used in therapy for certain oncological/hematological and rheumatological disorders. Epidemiology Since solely based on casuisti...
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Lung-RADS

Lung-RADS (Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System), is a classification proposed to aid with findings in low-dose CT screening exams for lung cancer. The goal of the classification system is to standardize follow-up and management decisions. The system is similar to the Fleischner criteria but d...
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H1N1 influenza

H1N1 influenza is a strain of influenza that notably resulted in a pandemic in 2009. It was referred to colloquially as 'swine flu' due to the origin of the virus, but it was also named H1N1/09 virus. A specific but different strain of H1N1 (called H1N1 influenza A) was the cause of the Spanish ...
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Pulmonary embolism (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pulmonary embolism refers to occlusion of the pulmonary arteries or its branches, usually via venous thrombus. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pulmonary embolism. Summary epidemi...
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Bronchial anthracofibrosis

Bronchial anthracofibrosis is defined as luminal bronchial narrowing associated with anthracotic pigmentation on bronchoscopy, without a relevant history of pneumoconiosis or smoking. Epidemiology There is a preponderance for bronchial anthracofibrosis affecting women in their sixties. Risk f...
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Lung cancer screening

Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) is an imaging strategy that is beginning to be adopted for high-risk patients in some health systems. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, and there is accumulating higher level evidence that a mortality benefit exists with...
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Tram-track sign (chest)

Tram-track sign may be used in chest radiography or CT to denote the thickened non-tapering (parallel) walls of cylindrical bronchiectasis. It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
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Chest x-ray: initial review (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. The A, B, C, D, E method is helpful for approaching a chest x-ray in a systematic manner. However, before ju...
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Chest x-ray review: everything else

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything else". Summary introduction look at things that do not fit into the A-...
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Chest x-ray review: disability

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability and specifically fractures and dislocations. Summary introduction there...
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Chest x-ray review: circulation

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation and assessment of the heart and cardiomediastinal contour. Summary intr...
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Chest x-ray review: breathing

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where B refers to breathing and the assessment of the lungs and pleural spaces. Summary introduction ...
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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
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Chest x-ray review: airway

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessment of the airways. Summary introduction airway assessment often overlo...
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Pulmonary arterial calcification

Pulmonary arterial calcification is a phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension. Pathology The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonary ...
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Pulmonary arterial atherosclerosis

Pulmonary artery atherosclerosis is less common than systemic arterial atherosclerosis in the thorax.  It has been shown to correlate with the following factors  age right ventricular dilatation right ventricular hypertrophy pulmonary emphysema aortic atherosclerosis pulmonary hypertensio...
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Portopulmonary hypertension

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH/PPHTN) refers to pulmonary artery hypertension that develops in the setting of portal hypertension (with or without underlying liver disease). It falls under group 1.4 of the Dana point 2008 pulmonary hypertension classification system. Epidemiology The preval...
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Multinodular goiter

Multinodular goiter (MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goiter) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased function.  Terminology When increased activity and hyperthyroidism are present then the condition is referred to as a toxic multinodular goiter ...
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Vascular rings and slings

Vascular rings and slings refer to the congenital vascular encirclement of the esophagus and/or trachea by anomalous/aberrant vessels.  Epidemiology Vascular rings are rare, occurring in <1% of patients 1. No gender or ethnic predispositions have been identified 3.  Clinical presentation Man...
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Pulmonary fungal disease

Pulmonary fungal disease encompasses a broad spectrum of infections related to fungal sources. They can particularly affect immunocompromised individuals. These include: pulmonary aspergillosis: pulmonary aspergillus infection considered the most important in immunocompromised individuals 5 a...
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Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic K: Kaposi sarcoma M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobronchi...
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Pulmonary vein stenosis

Pulmonary vein stenosis refers to a spectrum of conditions characterized by narrowing of the pulmonary veins. It can be congenital or acquired. primary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in children secondary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in adults and usually associated with some identifiabl...
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Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia

Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a type of pulmonary vein atresia. Clinical presentation The condition usually present in infancy or childhood with recurrent episodes of pneumonia and/or hemoptysis. Presentation in adulthood does occur but is uncommon. Pathology It results from failure o...
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Pulmonary vein atresia

Pulmonary vein atresia represents to a spectrum of disorders where the pulmonary veins fail to form to varying degrees. It can be broadly divided into: unilateral pulmonary vein atresia bilateral pulmonary vein atresia - common pulmonary vein atresia See also anomalous pulmonary venous drai...
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Unilateral pulmonary artery atresia

Unilateral pulmonary artery atresia (UPAA), also known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) or proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery, is a variant of pulmonary artery atresia.  Terminology The term interruption is preferred by some to absence or atresia because the anom...
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Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, is defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly-defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several r...
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Peripartum/postpartum cardiomyopathy

Peripartum/postpartum cardiomyopathy is a dilated cardiomyopathy that may occur in the last trimester of pregnancy through the first several months postpartum. Epidemiology The estimated incidence in the United States ranges from one in 900 to one in 4000 live births, with an increased inciden...
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), or von Recklinghausen disease, are related to pulmonary and mediastinal features of this multisystem neurocutaneous disorder, which is the most common phakomatosis. For thoracic manifestations involving the skeleton, such as focal thora...
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Sternal foramen

Sternal foramen (or perforated sternum) is a developmental variant of the sternum and results from incomplete fusion of the sternal ossification centers. They are common, occurring in approximately 5% of the population (range 4.3-6.7%). They are most commonly found in the inferior aspect of the ...
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Pulmonary mycobacterium abscessus infection

Pulmonary Mycobacterium abscessus infection is a type of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection where the causative organism is Mycobacterium abscessus. Clinical presentation Pulmonary disease is often indolent, but progressive causing persistent symptoms, a decline of pulmonary fun...
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Acute right heart syndrome

Acute right heart syndrome (ARHS) is defined as a sudden deterioration in right ventricular (RV) function and failure of the RV to deliver adequate blood flow to the pulmonary circulation. This can result in systemic hypoperfusion. Pathology ARHS can occur in several settings 1 in the setting...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
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Hepatisation of the lung

Pulmonary hepatisation refers to the pathologic alteration of lung tissue such that it resembles liver tissue. The term originates as a classic descriptor in surgical pathology, used to describe intermediate stages of lobar pneumonic consolidation. In imaging, the term is similarly used to desc...
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Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging, mucous plugging, bronchial mucocele or bronchocele formation, refers to airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive. It is a common pathological finding in chest imaging. Pathology Etiology Mucoid impactio...
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Calcified pulmonary embolus

Calcification associated with pulmonary emboli is usually associated with chronic pulmonary embolism. Calcification is occasionally related to prior congenital cardiac repairs 1. Differential diagnosis If it is purely high attenuating, consider polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) embolism into the ...
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Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is defined as a failure of the structure and function of the right ventricle in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. It is caused by an underlying primary disorder of the respiratory system. It has a generally chronic and slowly progressive course, although acute onset or w...
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Carina

The carina is the sagittally-oriented cartilaginous ridge at the bifurcation of the trachea and is an important reference point in chest imaging. Gross anatomy The carina represents the inferior termination of the trachea into the right and left main bronchi. The carina usually sits at the le...
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Nasogastric tube position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists   Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article NGT. S...
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Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
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Chest radiology for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathology seen on the wards, usually during medical, or elderly care blocks. In chest radiology, the most important imaging tests to know about are: ...
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Air-space opacification (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Air-space opacification is a descriptive term that refers to filling of the lung parenchyma with material that attenuates x-rays more than the unaffected surrounding lung tissue. It is the radiological correlate of the path...
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Pneumomediastinum (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumomediastinum describes air/gas within the mediastinum and is readily demonstrated on CT and may be seen on a chest radiograph. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pneumomediastinu...
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Bronchiolectasis

Bronchiolectasis is a descriptive term which is given to dilatation of bronchioles, which are of smaller caliber than bronchi. It can arise in a number of pathologies. Pathology Bronchiolectasis is most frequently seen secondary to fibrosis but can be seen with inflammatory airways disease. Br...
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Surgical emphysema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Surgical emphysema (or subcutaneous emphysema) occurs when air/gas is located in the subcutaneous tissues (the layer under the skin). This usually occurs in the chest, face or neck. Reference article This is a summary art...
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Heart failure (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Heart failure is a syndrome of cardiac ventricular dysfunction, where the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to meet the body's blood flow requirements. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our arti...
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Cicatrisation atelectasis

Cicatrisation atelectasis is a form of lung atelectasis which occurs as a result of scarring or fibrosis that reduces lung expansion. Cicatrisation atelectasis is classic in tuberculosis. The term is closely related to cicatrisation collapse when an entire lobe is collapsed from the same process...
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Crow feet sign (round atelectasis)

Crow feet sign is a characteristic, but uncommon, feature seen in round atelectasis. On CT, this is seen as linear bands radiating from a mass into adjacent lung tissue resembling the feet of a crow. This sign should not be confused with fibrotic changes occurring in the lung.
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Lower respiratory tract infection

A lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a very broad term which can mean inflammation of the respiratory tract below the level of the larynx. This term may include a pneumonia (which is often given to described more organized consolidation within the lungs). There is also overlap with the ...
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Bronchitis

Bronchitis (plural bronchitides) refers to inflammation of large airways (i.e. bronchi). Terminology It is considered a generic term referring to inflammation of the bronchial wall, representing the common final response of the airways to various irritants 3. Types This may be acute or chron...
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Shred sign (lungs)

The shred sign, also known as the fractal sign, is a static sonographic sign of lung consolidation. Consolidated lung tissue appears as a subpleural hypoechoic region that has an irregular (shredded) deep border (fractal line) abutting normally aerated lung, which has echogenic artifacts. This ...
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Sinusoid sign (ultrasound)

The sinusoid sign is a dynamic sonographic sign, present when respiratory variation decreases the distance between the parietal and visceral pleura, when separated by a pleural effusion. Classically demonstrated in M-mode, the appearance of which the moniker is derived, it is specific for the id...
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Quad sign

The quad sign is a static sonographic sign observed in pleural effusion. It consists of four lines representing the pleura, rib, fluid, and lung. Similar to the sinusoid sign, this sign has a high sensitivity and specificity for pleural effusion, which - when simple - is itself anechoic.
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Fluid color sign

The fluid color sign is a diagnostic sign to differentiate a pleural effusion from pleural thickening by means of color Doppler ultrasound. In the case of pleural effusion a color signal is seen in the pleural fluid during respiratory and cardiac movement, whereas this color signal is not seen i...
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Post-lung transplant bronchiolitis obliterans

Post-lung transplant bronchiolitis obliterans is a type of obliterative bronchiolitis that can occur as chronic post-lung transplantation complication. Clinically, it can present as part of the post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome under the umbrella of chronic lung allograft dysfunc...
Article

Dot in box appearance

A "dot in box" appearance is a pattern that has been described with pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosis.  The interlobular septal thickening from lymphangitis forms polygonal arcades accounting for the box while the prominence of the centrilobular bronchovascular bundle is thought to represent...
Article

Rigler notch sign (lungs)

The Rigler notch sign refers to an indentation in the border of a solid lung mass, which is thought to represents a feeding vessel, thus suggesting the presence of a bronchial carcinoma 1. However, this sign is also observed in other conditions, including granulomatous infections, and its differ...
Article

Middle mediastinum

The middle mediastinum is an artificial space of the mediastinum divided from the remainder of the extra-pleural intrathoracic cavity by arbitrary lines. It forms the largest component of the inferior mediastinum.  Gross anatomy Relations superiorly: superior mediastinum, divided by the thora...
Article

Posterior mediastinum

The posterior mediastinum (or paravertebral compartment) is a potential space along the paravertebral sulci. It is conceptually considered a portion of the inferior mediastinum, and separated from the middle mediastinal compartment and the remainder of the extrapleural intrathoracic cavity by ar...
Article

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies, either by its own or in association with other lung pathology. Historically, a size cut-off of 10 mm short-axis diameter was used.  Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some ...
Article

Parapneumonic effusion

Parapneumonic effusions refer to an exudative pleural effusion associated with pneumonia. Epidemiology Approximately 40-45% of patients who are hospitalized for pneumonia develop a parapneumonic effusion 3. Pathology Fluid leaks into the pleural space due to increased permeability of the vis...
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Dark bronchus sign

The dark bronchus sign is the appearance of a relatively darker bronchus as compared to adjacent ground glass opacity. Normally, the density of lung parenchyma and the bronchiolar lumen is similar. In cases of ground glass opacity, the bronchiolar lumen within the affected lung parenchyma appear...
Article

Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
Article

Subpulmonic effusion

Subpulmonic effusions (also known as subpulmonary effusions) are pleural effusions that can be seen only on an erect projection. Rather than layering laterally and blunting of the costophrenic angle, the pleural fluid lies almost exclusively between the lung base and the diaphragm. Radiographic...
Article

Perifissural lung nodules

Perifissural lung nodules (PFNs) are a type of intrapulmonary nodules that, most of the times, represent pulmonary lymph nodes.  Terminology  Although perilymphatic pulmonary nodules can also be perifissural in distribution, they should be distinguished from perifissural lung nodules, as the f...
Article

USB flash drive

The ubiquitous USB flash drive (or USB stick) may be an odd article on a radiology website, but those who report a lot of chest radiographs will be aware that it can be often be confused for an implantable loop recorder device or leadless pacemaker.  Radiographic features Whilst USB drives com...
Article

Tracheal calcification

Tracheal calcification, or tracheobronchial calcification, is a benign radiological finding of the middle aged and elderly and is usually of no clinical significance. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic. Pathology Long-term warfarin therapy may be associated with trache...
Article

Investigation of pleuritic chest pain (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pleuritic chest pain is chest pain that is precipitated by movement or forceful breathing and tends to be sharp in nature. It is often accompanied by a perception of dyspnea which may be secondary to suppression of respirat...
Article

Exudate

An exudate is a collection that has a relatively high specific gravity and protein concentration. They occur as the result of an inflammatory process that either increases the permeability of the surrounding membrane or disrupts the ability of resorption of fluid. They may be secondary to: infe...
Article

Transudate

A transudate is a collection of fluid that has a relatively low specific gravity and protein concentration. They occur secondary to increased hydrostatic pressure or reduced colloid oncotic pressure: left ventricular failure (increased hydrostatic pressure) hypoalbuminemia (decreased colloid o...

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