Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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Transient arterial phase respiratory motion-related artifact

Transient arterial phase respiratory motion-related artifact refers to common self-limited dyspnea observed immediately after the administration of gadoxetate disodium during liver MRI studies. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon is poorly understood and its incidence varies among differe...
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Sandwich sign (disambiguation)

The sandwich sign is used for two different imaging appearances: sandwich sign (Marchiafava-Bignami disease) sandwich sign (mesentery) Sandwich sign has also been coined for the appearance of: primary pleural lymphoma 1,2 mediastinal lymphoma 3 marrow edema and hemorrhage on MRI of flexion...
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Mosaic appearance (disambiguation)

The evocative appearance of a mosaic is used for two different entities: mosaic attenuation of the lungs mosaic pattern of Paget disease of the bone
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Radiation recall pneumonitis

Radiation recall pneumonitis is a rare reaction occurring in previously irradiated areas of pulmonary tissue after the application of triggering agents (e.g. chemotherapeutic agents, immunomodulators). It is not thought to be due to the direct effect of radiation. Classically this has been descr...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy related pneumonitis

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy-related pneumonitis is one of the complications that can occur in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Epidemiology Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy-related pneumonitis is considered a rare complication with a reported incidence of <5% in m...
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Pulmonary venous obstructive syndrome

Pulmonary vein obstructive syndrome (PVOS) is a form of pulmonary venous stenosis which can occur as a result of pulmonary venous infiltration by a tumor or compression by affected lymph nodes with resultant venous stasis +/- subsequent thrombosis. It can occur to a variable extent. Terminology...
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Melphalan associated pulmonary toxicity

Melphalan-associated pulmonary toxicity is a rare form of drug induced lung disease. It is an alkylating agent and toxicity has usually been described with high dose. Typically a diffuse interstitial pneumonitis has been described.
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Lung carcinoma doubling time (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the lung carcinoma doubling time, in order of increasing time, is: SMS LA ​Mnemonic SM: small cell lung cancer - 30 days S: squamous cell carcinoma (lung) - 90 days L: large cell cancer of lung - 120 days A: adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung - 150-180 days
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Silico-asbestosis

Silico-asbestosis refers to a rare form of pneumoconiosis where there are features of silicosis and asbestosis. It is thought to due to the combined sclerosing effect of crystalline silica and asbestos fibers 2.
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Interventricular septal bulge

Interventricular septal bulge​ (also known as a sigmoid septum) is a common finding in imaging studies in the elderly population and refers to an isolated thickened basal septum resulting in a sigmoid configuration. Although it is currently unclear whether this entity is part of the normal agin...
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Oxygen masks

Oxygen masks are commonly visible on chest imaging, as they are generally not removed before the examination is performed.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph Oxygen masks are of soft-tissue density and may mimic lung lesions. A nebuliser mask with liquid in its cup causing an air-fluid l...
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Percutaneous lung tumor ablation

Percutaneous lung tumor ablation techniques are an alternative to surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of certain malignancies. They have specific indications and contraindications, but are mostly limited to small oligonodular and favourably located lesions.  They ...
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Filling defect

A filling defect is a general term used to refer to any abnormality on an imaging study which disrupts the normal opacification (filling) of a cavity or lumen. The opacification maybe physiological, for example, bile in the gallbladder or blood in a dural venous sinus, or maybe due to the instal...
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COVID-19 (summary)

This summary article is intended to be used as a quick reference guide. Please see our complete COVID-19 article for more detail.  COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a viral infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is currently a World Health Organizatiοn (WHO) declared pandemic. As of N...
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CT chest non-contrast (protocol)

The CT chest (non-contrast) protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a chest CT without the use of an intravenous contrast medium. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a CT protocol for the assessment of the chest. Protocol specifics will vary depending on CT scanne...
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Lung carcinosarcoma

Lung carcinosarcomas are uncommon malignant biphasic tumors classified as a subtype of sarcomatoid tumors of the lung.  Epidemiology It is rare and thought to account for <1% of all lung cancers. There may be a greater male predilection with tumor generally occurring in heavy smokers with peak...
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Excipient lung disease

Excipient lung disease refers to a granulomatous angiocentric pulmonary response to the intravenous injection of fillers in crushed oral tablets or particulate agents in recreational drugs. Terminology Excipients are insoluble inert fillers used to protect the active components of drugs in ora...
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Hyperacute lung transplant rejection

Hyperacute lung transplant rejection is a rare, rapid and often fatal form of early post lung transplant complications. Epidemiology Hyperacute rejection occurs in the first few hours after reperfusion of the allograft lungs.  Pathology Following recommencement of blood flow into the allogra...
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Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy

Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy occurs when there are non-occlusive tumor cell microemboli with fibrointimal remodeling in small pulmonary arteries, veins and lymphatics. It rarely causes pulmonary hypertension. Epidemiology Associations At autopsy, approximately 25% patients with ...
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Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) reconstruction

Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flap is a technique performed in breast reconstruction. It is considered suitable for some patients who have breast cancer in the outer part of the breast. It aims to replace lost breast tissue, fat and occasionally skin that is removed at the time o...
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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging modality that allows real-time x-ray viewing of a patient with high temporal resolution. It is based on an x-ray image intensifier coupled to a still/video camera. In recent years flat panel detectors (which are similar to the digital radiography used in projection radi...
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Cheerio sign (disambiguation)

The Cheerio sign has been described in two different scenarios: Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule) Cheerio sign (shoulder)
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Primary pulmonary chondrosarcoma

Primary pulmonary chondrosarcoma is an extremely rare form of chondrosarcoma, in terms of location. The majority of intrathoracic chondrosarcomas occur in relation to the chest wall. Epidemiology While the exact incidence is unknown, only a handful of cases have been reported in the literature...
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Stridor

Stridor is a term to describe an abnormal, high-pitched breath sound produced by abnormal, turbulent air flow with respiration 1. It usually represents narrowing of the large, extrathoracic airways 2. Pathology Etiology Stridor can be caused by numerous conditions, but its presence may indica...
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Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an immunoglobulin initially described in association with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an IgM antibody against the FC portion of the IgG antibodies. Ongoing research has identified a group of related immunoglobulins, classed as rheumatoid factors (RFs) and despite extens...
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Inferior cavoatrial junction

The inferior cavoatrial junction (ICAJ) is the term given to the point at which the inferior vena cava (IVC) enters the right atrium. It is less commonly used/seen, in contradistinction to the superior cavoatrial junction.  Accurate localization of the inferior cavoatrial junction is of practic...
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Interchondral joints

The interchondral joints are small articulations between the apposed costal cartilages of the ribs 7-10. On each side are three diminutive synovial joints between the surfaces of the 6th and 7th costal cartilages, 7th and 8th costal cartilages and 8th and 9th costal cartilages. The 9th and 10th...
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Costochondritis

Costochondritis (rare plural: costochondritides) is a common, usually self-limiting, painful inflammation of one or multiple costochondral junctions and/or the costosternal articulation. There is usually a distinct absence of swelling and chest wall palpation usually reproduces the pain.  It is...
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Cystic fibrosis (head and neck manifestations)

The head and neck manifestations of cystic fibrosis are common compared to the well-known respiratory manifestations.  For general discussion of cystic fibrosis, and a discussion of its other manifestations, please refer to: cystic fibrosis (parent article) pulmonary manifestations of cystic ...
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Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a rare interstitial lung disease of childhood that typically presents in the first year of life. Terminology Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy was previously reported as persistent tachypnea of infancy until the disease was found to...
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Esophageal wall thickening

Esophageal wall thickening can be observed in a number of situations and can be either focal or diffuse. It may be physiological, and can also be due to benign or malignant disorders. Pathology Causes diffuse diffuse esophageal spasm forms of esophagitis diffuse esophageal intramural hemat...
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Human coronavirus

The human coronaviruses (hCoVs), members of the family Coronaviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses that affect humans, mammals and birds, causing both acute and chronic illnesses. Four of the seven known human coronaviruses usually cause a mild coryzal illness only, these are HKU1, NL63, OC43, and...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a zoonotic illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), a coronavirus. The disease was first seen in the city of Foshan in Guangdong Province in China in 2002 and was traced back to the ​Himalayan (masked) p...
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Penetration-aspiration scale

The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) is a means of grading the severity of penetration or aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and is widely used 2. The term aspiration is used for material that passes inferior to the level of the vocal folds. If material enters the larynx...
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Aspiration

Aspiration occurs if liquid or solid material enters the subglottic lower respiratory tract. Terminology The term aspiration is used if material passes below the level of the vocal folds, i.e. subglottic. If material enters the larynx but remains above the vocal folds, this is called penetrati...
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COVID-19

For a quick reference guide, please see our COVID-19 summary article. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of coronavirus. The first cases were seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 before ...
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Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation

Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation refers to a region of lung parenchyma with air space opacification that has higher attenuation on CT than muscle or than expected with typical causes of consolidation such as pneumonia (fluid attenuation) or cancer (soft tissue attenuation). The differen...
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Histoplasmoma

Histoplasmoma is the name for a specific kind of nodule secondary to granulomatous reaction to histoplasmosis infection. It is often described as having a pathognomonic target lesion appearance, describing a well-defined nodule with a central core of calcification 5. Histoplasmomas can appear ...
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Pneumococcal pneumonia

Pneumococcal pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by the organism Streptococcus pneumoniae (a.k.a. pneumococcus). Epidemiology Pneumococcal pneumonia is one of the most common community-acquired pneumonias, and the most common in many areas. The pathogen afflicts all age groups worldwid...
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Lobectomy (lung)

A lobectomy (plural: lobectomies) is the complete resection of one lobe of the lung and is the commonest lung surgery performed for bronchogenic carcinoma. Technique A posterolateral thoracotomy is the commonest approach for the resection of lung malignancies. For other surgical approaches for...
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Small heart sign

The small heart sign represents a rarely encountered but critical sign on chest caused by a sudden reduction of heart size caused by cardiac tamponade due to either tension pneumopericardium or pneumomediastinum.  A sudden, >2 cm reduction in the transverse cardiac diameter is considered highly...
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Paragonimiasis

Paragonimiasis is a disease caused by several species of the trematode genus Paragonimus.  More than 50 different species of Paragonimus have been described in Asia, Africa, and the Americas and of those nine species infecting humans. The most important species is Paragonimus Westermani, which ...
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Thalidomide induced interstitial pneumonitis

Thalidomide-induced pneumonitis is a rare form of drug-induced lung disease. It could be suspected in patients who develop dyspnea, cough, and fever after taking thalidomide, without a definite cause, with chest radiographs +/- CT shows supportive findings. Many publications suggest this is reve...
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Lung surgery

Lung (or pulmonary) surgery is most frequently performed for lung carcinoma, and encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures: sublobar resections wedge resection segmentectomy lobectomy: commonest surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma includes sleeve lobectomy and bilobectomy pneumonectomy Te...
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Chen sign

Chen sign on chest radiography is the prominence of the left basal pulmonary vasculature, compared to the right, seen in valvular pulmonary stenosis. It is due to the asymmetric increase in pulmonary blood flow to the left lung due to preferential blood flow into the left pulmonary artery after ...
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Scimitar (disambiguation)

The term scimitar, referring to the characteristic shape of the Middle Eastern sword, may refer to the following: scimitar syndrome (lungs) scimitar sign (cystic adventitial disease) scimitar sacrum (bones)
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Pleomorphic adenoma

Pleomorphic adenomas, also known by the misnomer benign mixed tumors (BMTs), are benign epithelial neoplasms related to glandular tissue. They have a small but real risk of malignant transformation. For a discussion of specific sites of pleomorphic adenoma, please refer to pleomorphic adeno...
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Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Pulmonary interstitial edema

Pulmonary interstitial edema represents a form of pulmonary edema resulting from pathological fluid buildup in the interstitial spaces due to increased hydrostatic driving pressure. Pathology Interstitial lung edema arises almost exclusively due to an increase of the pulmonary capillary hydros...
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Airway centered interstitial fibrosis

Airway centered interstitial fibrosis is a rare subtype of pulmonary fibrosis with variable outcomes. Pathology It is characterized by fibrosis of the respiratory bronchioles and the peribronchiolar interstitium. It may be triggered by exogenous agents or endogenous autoimmune conditions such ...
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Retrocardiac sail sign

The retrocardiac sail sign represents the characteristic and highly specific appearance of left lower lobe collapse on a frontal chest x-ray. Radiographic appearance The collapsed, medially displaced left lower lobe is represented by a triangular area of increased density with sharp margins, s...
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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), also known as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of total (i.e. apnoeas) or reduction (i.e. hypopnoeas) in ventilation due to total or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This condition is dis...
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Agenesis (general)

The biological/medical term agenesis (plural: ageneses) refers to failure of an organ to grow or develop during the embryological period. Examples include: appendiceal agenesis cerebellar agenesis corpus callosum agenesis dental agenesis (anodontia) diaphragmatic agenesis dorsal pancreati...
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Diffuse airway narrowing

Diffuse airway narrowing can occur from a number of pathologies; these include: relapsing polychondritis ulcerative colitis amyloidosis: tracheobronchial sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangiitis tracheopathia osteochondroplastica various infections including tracheobronchial papillom...
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Xiphisternal joint

The xiphisternal joint (or more rarely, the sternoxiphoid joint) is a symphysis between the inferior margin of the body of the sternum and the superior margin of the xiphoid process. In most people it ossifies with age, usually becoming fully fused by the age of 40 years, forming a synostosis.  ...
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Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a classification of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is not due to left ventricular dysfunction. Causes include: fluid overload pulmonary edema with acute asthma post-obstructive pulmonary edema/postintubation pulmonary edema/negative pressure ...
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Cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a subtype of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is due to left ventricular dysfunction. Pathology Etiology left heart failure congestive cardiac failure mitral regurgitation aortic stenosis arrhythmias myocardial pathology myocarditis cardiomyo...
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Acute bronchitis

Acute bronchitis (plural: bronchitides) refers to acute-onset, short-term bronchial inflammation. It is usually self-limiting and often the result of a viral infection. Chest radiography is rarely necessary. Epidemiology Acute bronchitis can affect people of all ages, but it is commonest in ch...
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Spontaneous rib fracture

Spontaneous rib fractures are rib fractures that occur in the absence of a definitive precipitant. According to one study, they were most frequently between the 4th and 9th ribs and multiple in around 40% of cases. Some were associated with factors such as 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas...
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Double density sign (disambiguation)

The double density sign can refer to several radiological signs: double density sign (left atrial enlargement) double density sign (berry aneurysm) double density sign (osteoid osteoma)
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Barium aspiration

Barium aspiration occurs occasionally during upper GI fluoroscopic studies using barium sulfate contrast, and usually only small amounts pass into the airways. Clinical presentation When only tiny quantities of barium pass into the airways (so-called microaspiration) the patient may remain asy...
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Left heart failure

Left heart failure or left ventricular failure is the type of heart failure attributed to left ventricular dysfunction. When the left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively out of the heart, pulmonary edema develops. Congestion can progress to right heart failure, with manifestations such...
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Chest photofluorography

Chest photofluorography, also known as mass miniature radiography, is a form of diagnostic imaging known as fluorography, applied to the thorax. Historically it was used for mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis, but became obsolete in the mid-1970s. The imaging technique consists of record...
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Medial breast margin sign

The medial breast margin sign is a sign of pectus excavatum seen on the frontal chest radiographs of women. It is one of several described signs of pectus excavatum on frontal chest radiographs.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph Women with pectus excavatum may have a more vertically ori...
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PISAPED criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The PISAPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on perfusion scintigraphy (only the Q portion of the V/Q scan) in combination with chest radiography. The criteria were validated in the Prospective Investigative St...
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Modified PIOPED II criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The modified PIOPED II criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on V/Q scan (ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy). The following article reflects the modified interpretation criteria promulgated in 2008 1 based on recat...
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Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
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Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization is a CT-guided procedure where a marker is applied to a usually small lung lesion to assist in its surgical identification and resection. The widespread use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the advance in robotically assisted surgical inter...
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Vaping-associated lung disease

Vaping-associated lung disease, or EVALI (e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury), consists of patterns of inhalational pulmonary injury induced by electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes, e-vaporizers, e-hookahs, vapes, vape pens). These products heat up a liquid con...
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Late-onset asthma

Late-onset asthma (LOA) is a form of asthma that precipitates in the adult or the elderly.  Epidemiology The estimated age- and sex-adjusted incidence of newly diagnosed asthma in people older than 65 years at around 0.1% per year 1. There may be a greater female predilection. Pathology From...
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Cryptococcoma

Cryptococcomas are a rare complication of infection by the Cryptococcus genus of invasive fungi, where a discrete, encapsulated lesion of immune infiltrates and pathogen forms. Cryptococcus gattii is most often isolated but Cryptococcus neoformans may also form cryptococcomas. Epidemiology In ...
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Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System

Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) is a structured reporting scheme for all non-contrast CT scans in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, which can help in communication between clinicians and radiologists. These guidelines have been recommended by the Society of C...
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Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic shock or reaction) is an acute severe systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly presenting with urticaria/angioedema, hypotension and bronchial hyperreactivity. It may be fatal. Terminology Anaphylactoid reactions result from non-immune system ...
Article

Sternal non-union

Sternal non-union is one of the post-sternotomy complications that can occur as a result of cardiothoracic intervention or trauma and be a morbid condition with serious sequelae. Patients often report pain with breathing, coughing, and/or movement. It can be infectious or non-infectious and may ...
Article

Lunate trachea

Lunate trachea is a rare variant of the trachea in inspiration where the trachea has a flattened shape said to resemble a crescent or moon. Normally the tracheal index (ratio of coronal to sagittal diameter) is less than 1, but with lunate trachea the ratio is greater than 1 1, 2. It is a very ...
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Anthrax

Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by Bacillus Anthracis. There are four types of anthrax: inhalational anthrax (also known as woolsorter's disease and ragsorter's disease), cutaneous anthrax, injection anthrax and intestinal anthrax. Epidemiology The disease burden of anthrax decreased so dramatica...
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Srb anomaly

The Srb anomaly describes an anatomic variant of the ribs, in which there is partial to complete bony ankylosis of the first and second ribs.
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Psoriasis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of psoriasis is uncommon and only thought to represent a small percentage of patients. They can include: interstitial lung disease 1 only thought to affect around 2% of patients with psoriasis may be seen as ground-glass and/or irregular linear (reticular) opacities i...
Article

Ligamantum arteriosum calcification

Ligamantum arteriosum calcification is a common finding on chest CT scans in adults and increases in prevalence with increasing age and atherosclerosis. It can sometimes even be present in children 3. Many patterns have been described which include: punctate: considered commonest curvilinear ...
Article

Nitrofurantoin related lung changes

Nitrofurantoin related lung disease refers to a spectrum of lung changes that can be precipitated by nitrofurantoin use. Epidemiology Nitrofurantoin-induced lung injury is uncommon where a considerable number of reported publications likely reflect the widespread use of the drug rather than th...
Article

Pseudochylothorax

A pseudochylothorax (plural: pseudochylothoraces), also known as a pseudochylous effusion, chyliform effusion, cholesterol effusion, or cholesterol pleurisy, is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of a cholesterol crystal-rich fluid within the pleural space. Epidemiology T...
Article

Primary pulmonary hemosiderosis

Primary pulmonary hemosiderosis is one group of pulmonary hemosiderosis and can comprise of pulmonary hemosiderosis associated Goodpasture syndrome pulmonary hemosiderosis associated with hypersensitivity to proteins in cow's milk (Heiner syndrome) idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH)
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CT pulmonary angiogram (protocol)

The computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA/CTPE) is a commonly performed diagnostic examination to exclude pulmonary emboli (PE). Each radiology department will have a slightly different method for achieving the same outcome, i.e. diagnostic density of the main pulmonary artery and its br...
Article

Oxygen

Oxygen (chemical symbol O) is one of the basic organic elements, and is a constituent of most of the known organic molecules - and therefore all lifeforms - on earth.  Chemistry Basic chemistry Oxygen is a colourless odorless diatomic gas with an atomic number 8 and atomic weight 15.999. It h...
Article

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism is a condition which results in a uniform intense FDG-avid pulmonary focus without any underlying structural CT correlate with an unremarkable follow-up PET-CT scan 1. It is thought to occur as a result of clumping of FDG with blood when the blood is withdr...
Article

Pulmonary strongyloidiasis

Pulmonary strongyloidiasis refers to changes associated with lung infection due to the parasite named Strongyloides stercoralis. It is endemic to both the tropics and subtropics. Pathology Severe cases such as hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), can involve pul...
Article

Primary pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma

Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma (PEAC) or pulmonary adenocarcinoma with enteric differentiation (PAED) is an extremely rare variant of primary invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. It has morphological and immunohistochemical profiles overlapping with that of colorectal carcinoma. Due to this, i...
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Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung

Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare (i.e. only accounting for ~0.2% of all lung cancers) variant of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Pathology It is histologically characterized by the presence of abundant mucus in the tumor with neoplastic cells seen floating in large pools o...
Article

ROS1 mutation

The ROS1 mutation is a mutation occurring in the ROS1 oncogene on chromosome 6 resulting in a defective receptor tyrosine kinase which has structural similarity to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein. It is thought to be present in several cancers of the subtype non-small cell lung can...
Article

Well differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of lung

A well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA) of lung is a rare low grade lung tumor. Some consider this as a variant of adenocarcinoma with others considering this under the group of pulmonary blastomas 5.  According to classification by the World Health Organization in 1999, it was remove...
Article

Pulmonary blastoma

Pulmonary blastomas (PBs) comprise a rare group of lung tumors principally consisting of immature mesenchymal and epithelial structures that structurally mimic the embryonic lung. They are usually diagnosed in pediatric populations, however have been identified in young adults up to the fourth d...
Article

Fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung

Fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung (FLAC) is a rare form of adenocarcinoma of lung (falls under invasive category). Epidemiology Some reports suggest its occurrence at ~0.1%-0.5% of all pulmonary neoplasms 1.  Despite its "fetal" tissue morphology it typically presents in middle aged to elderly ...
Article

Bagassosis

Bagassosis refers to a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to a mouldy molasses usually related to sugar cane dry pulpy fibrous residue called bagasse (Thermoactinomyces sacchari). It is considered to reflect a reaction to organic dust and is becoming rarer in recent years.

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