Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
Article

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non small cell lung cancer refers to a specific set of non small cell lung cancers that contain an inversion in chromosome 2. They are associated with specific clinical features, including never or light smoking history, younger age, and ...
Article

Tracheal bifurcation angle

The tracheal bifurcation angle can have a wide range of normal values in patients and can vary significantly in serial radiographs. It is of poor diagnostic value due to the lack of sensitivity and specificity in identifying the underlying pathology.  Terminology The interbronchial angle is th...
Article

Slipping rib syndrome

Slipping rib syndrome, also known as Cyriax syndrome, occurs when hypermobility of the rib cartilage of the lower ribs slips and moves, leading to pain in the lower chest or upper abdomen 1. Epidemiology This condition may occur at any age, but is reportedly more common in middle-aged adults, ...
Article

Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease

Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (AE-ILD), which sometimes also encompasses acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF), is an acute, clinically significant deterioration which develops within less than 1 month without an obvious clinical precipitant such as fluid...
Article

Tension hemothorax

A tension hemothorax refers to a hemothorax that exerts a considerable mass effect. It often results from massive intrathoracic hemorrhage and often causes ipsilateral lung compression and mediastinal displacement.
Article

Positive bronchus sign

The positive bronchus sign is seen on CT chest, and refers to the presence of a bronchus leading directly to a peripheral lung lesion 1,2. In one study, four types of tumor-bronchi relationships were described 3: patent bronchus leads directly to the tumor mass bronchus is within the tumor ma...
Article

Passy Muir speaking valve

Passy Muir speaking valve is a common type of one-way speaking valve, allowing patients to speak post-tracheostomy tube placement. They are used in both adults and children 1. With the valve in situ, the patient is able to inhale air normally into the lungs but on exhalation, the valve closes an...
Article

Solid-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung with mucin production

Solid-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung with mucin production is a histological subtype of non-mucinous invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. Terminology In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory S...
Article

Micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung is a histological subtype of invasive non-mucinous invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. Terminology In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Socie...
Article

Post-sternotomy complications

Post-sternotomy complications comprise a varied range of complications that can occur at varying intervals following a median sternotomy.  Epidemiology Complication rates for median sternotomy have been reported to range from 0.5-5% and mortality rates ranging from 7-80%. Pathology They are ...
Article

Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung

Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung, also known as primary bronchopulmonary fibrosarcoma, is a very rare spindle-cell tumor. Epidemiology More than 80% of cases are reported to occur within the 1st year of life. There is a slight predominance in male infants 1,2. Clinical presentation Patient...
Article

Primary lung tumors in children

Pediatric primary lung tumors are rare in children however they must be distinguished from locally aggressive inflammatory conditions and benign disease. 1 Primary lung tumors in the neonates and infants include: pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung fetal lung in...
Article

Submassive pulmonary embolism

A submassive pulmonary embolism refers to an acute pulmonary embolism with evidence of myocardial necrosis or right ventricular dysfunction in the absence of systemic hypotension. An elevation in troponin I or T provides evidence of myocardial necrosis. Right ventricular dysfunction is defined b...
Article

Massive pulmonary embolism

A massive pulmonary embolism (PE) represents the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease when classified on a continuum of hemodynamic derangement. Diagnostic criteria Massive PE is usually characterized by an acute pulmonary embolism accompanied by one or more of the follo...
Article

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

The most common cause of pulmonary hypertension in newborns is persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). It occurs in term or late preterms infants, where the fetal shunts persist after birth and fail to close. It falls under group 1.5 of the Dana Point classification system of pu...
Article

B-line (ultrasound)

The B-line is an artifact relevant in lung ultrasonography. As originally described, it has seven defining features 1: a hydroaeric comet-tail artifact arising from the pleural line hyperechoic well-defined extending indefinitely erasing A-lines  moving in concert with lung sliding, if lung...
Article

Circumflex aorta

Circumflex aorta is a rare aortic arch anomaly caused by retroesophageal crossing of the aorta to the contralateral side. A vascular ring is formed when a ductus or ligamentum arteriosum contralateral to the aortic arch connects the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Pulmonary Acinetobacter infection

Pulmonary Acinetobacter infection refers to pulmonary infection with Acinetobacter species of which Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A baumannii complex accounts for a considerable proportion. Pulmonary infection with this organism can cause hospital-acquired pneumonia (especially the late onset typ...
Article

Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease

Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GL-ILD) is a relatively recent term given to describe non-infectious diffuse lung disease complications that have been reported to traditionally develop in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients. Epidemiology Associations Although...
Article

Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae or fistulas) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs. For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individu...
Article

Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve, also known as the flutter valve, is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can stil...
Article

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm refers to a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary arteries. Pathology A pseudoaneurysm results from a tear or disruption of all three layers of the vessel wall. Extravasated blood is contained by compressed extravascular tissue or a clot, which makes up the ...
Article

Pulmonary streptococcus anginosus infection

Pulmonary streptococcus anginosus infection is a form of bacterial lung infection. Streptococcus anginosus is part of the S. milleri group (which in turn is a subgroup of viridans streptococci) that consists of three distinct streptococcal species: S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constella...
Article

Ditzel

A ditzel is an informal term widely used by radiologists to refer to indeterminate small pulmonary nodules 1.  History and etymology The etymology of the term ditzel is disputed. It might be derived from the American term 'ditzy' meaning silly or inane, but there is a lack of good evidence for...
Article

Type IV endoleak

Type IV endoleaks are a type of endoleak which usually occurs secondary to graft porosity and are typically seen in the immediate post operative angiogram following an endovascular aneurysm repair. Epidemiology Type IV endoleaks are extremely rare and studies report a prevalence of 0.3%. This ...
Article

Vital capacity

Vital capacity (commonly termed VC) is a spirometric parameter defined as the maximum amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. Vital capacity increases with: ...
Article

Peribronchovascular consolidation

Peribronchovascular consolidation is a form of consolidation which tends to occur along peribronchovascular bundles. If smooth and mild, it may be seen as peribronchovascular thickening on chest radiography and in some instances on CT. If more extensive it tends to occur as more mass like areas ...
Article

Peribronchovascular thickening

Peribronchovascular thickening is a broad imaging descriptive term commonly used to describe thickening of any one or more of the below: peribronchovascular interstitial thickening bronchial wall thickening: can be differentiated from true peribronchovascular thickening on cross-section...
Article

Gastropleural fistula

A gastropleural fistula is a pathological communication between the stomach and the pleural cavity. Clinical presentation Gastropleural fistula usually presents acutely, and may be related to a recent history of surgery. However, depending on the size of the fistula, patients with gastropleura...
Article

Dendriform pulmonary ossification

Dendriform (or dendritic) pulmonary ossification is a rare morphological subtype of pulmonary ossification whereby the thin branching calcified lines on CT resemble a dendrite (however a dendritic pattern may not always be present on CT). Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection 6....
Article

Pleural effusion volume (ultrasound)

Measurement of a pleural effusion volume with point-of-care ultrasonography may be a useful tool for intensivists and is an active area of research in critical care 7. In controlled settings ultrasound may detect constitutive pleural fluid, can reliably detect effusions >20 mL in clinical setti...
Article

A-line (ultrasound)

An A-line is an ultrasonographic artifact appreciated during the insonation of an aerated lung. 1 The term may be applied to the horizontal, echogenic long path reverberation artifacts that occur beneath the pleural line at multiples of the distance between the ultrasound probe and the visceral...
Article

Secondary organizing pneumonia

Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in which no cause is present.  Pathology Etiology Secondary organizing pneumonia can be attributed to the following causes 1: ...
Article

Retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

The retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein is a rare vascular variant where the left brachiocephalic vein passes more inferiorly through the superior mediastinum, coursing inferior to the aortic arch and posterior to the ascending aorta to join the right brachiocepahilc vein forming the superior...
Article

Bridging bronchus

A bridging bronchus is a rare congenital bronchial anomaly where there is an anomalous bronchus to the right lung arising from the left main bronchus. It has a high association with right upper lobe bronchus (pig bronchus) and congenital cardiac and vascular malformations, particularly a left pu...
Article

Peter Kerley

Sir Peter “PK” Kerley (1900-1979) was a globally-renowned cardiothoracic radiologist who is primarily remembered now for his Kerley lines but in his lifetime was famed for his uncanny imaging diagnostic abilities, co-editing the famous 'A Text-book of X-Ray Diagnosis by British Authors', and co-...
Article

Endobronchial valve

Endobronchial valves are one-way valves inserted via bronchoscopy that restrict airflow to a particular lung segment. They permit the drainage of airway secretions during the expiratory phase but restrict incoming airflow during inspiration 1. Endobronchial valves were originally designed as an...
Article

Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
Article

Aortic pseudoaneurysm vs ductus diverticulum

Differentiation of aortic pseudoaneurysm from ductus diverticulum is critical, particularly in the trauma setting. A traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a surgical emergency whereas a ductus diverticulum is a normal anatomic variant. The following are differentiating features: Aortic pseudoaneu...
Article

Air bubble sign (pulmonary hydatid)

The air bubble sign is seen in CT of complicated (ruptured or infected) pulmonary hydatid cyst and refers to small bubbles of gas within the periphery of pulmonary mass and is helpful, particularly in endemic areas, in suggesting the diagnosis over other masses (e.g. metastases or primary lung t...
Article

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: non-contrast axial with clinical questions CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal ...
Article

Catamenial hemothorax

A catamenial hemothorax is one of the potential manifestations of thoracic endometriosis. It is essentially a term to describe cyclical hemorrhage into the lungs. It is considered less common than a catamenial pneumothorax and a proportion of patients may present with hemoptysis 3. See also he...
Article

Placental transmogrification of the lung

Placental transmogrification of the lung is a very rare condition, where a region of alveoli resembles the chorionic villi of the placenta. Terminology It has been assigned various names in the past which include placentoid bullous lesion. Epidemiology Placental transmogrification usually oc...
Article

Rim sign (pulmonary infarction)

The rim sign can be seen in cases of pulmonary infarction on PET-CT with very mild peripheral continuous FDG uptake and the complete absence of central uptake. This is a different appearance to that seen in lung abscesses or necrotic tumors, whereby the peripheral FDG-avidity is marked. History...
Article

Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous ...
Article

Review areas on chest radiograph

Review areas on a chest radiograph are common areas for missed findings, and special attention should be paid to them: lung apices: masses (e.g. Pancoast tumor), pneumothorax behind the heart: consolidation, masses, hiatus hernia 2 below the diaphragm: free gas, lines and tubes (e.g. nasogast...
Article

Assessment of chest x-ray technical adequacy (approach)

Described below are some points on an approach to the assessment of the chest x-ray technical adequacy. Rarely, a technically inadequate chest x-ray will prohibit diagnostic interpretation but knowledge of the limitations will impact on diagnostic confidence.  Exposure/penetration assessed by ...
Article

Assessment of bones and soft tissue on chest x-ray

Described below are points to consider on assessment of bones and soft tissue on chest x-ray.  ribs rib fractures lesions (most commonly metastases): may appear as lucent and/or sclerotic; inverting contrast may help in identification previous surgery, e.g. thoracotomy with rib resection ve...
Article

Assessment of lungs, pleura and airways on chest x-ray (approach)

Described below is one approach to the assessment of airways, lungs and pleura on chest x-ray. Start by assessing the tracheal air column, followed by the lungs and finally the pleural spaces.  Tracheobronchial tree assess position, should be central and deviation can be due to positive mass ...
Article

Assessment of pulmonary hila on chest x-ray (approach)

The assessment of the pulmonary hila on chest x-ray is important for detecting potential mediastinal and lung pathology. Several features of the hilum and hilar point can be assessed: shape normally appear as K or C-shapes on either side contents: pulmonary arteries and veins, bronchi, lymph...
Article

Assessment of cardiomediastinal contours on chest x-ray (approach)

Described below is one approach to systematic assessment and associated pathology of the cardiomediastinal contours on chest x-ray. Mediastinum size: widened mediastinum can be seen in aortic dissection, traumatic aortic injury, vascular ectasia abnormal contour, e.g. lymphadenopathy, anteri...
Article

Systematic chest radiograph assessment (approach)

One approach to a systematic chest radiograph assessment is as follows: projection assessment of the technical adequacy tubes and lines cardiomediastinal contours hila airways, lungs and pleura bones and soft tissue review areas Following a systematic approach on every chest radiograph ...
Article

Pericardial diverticulum

Pericardial diverticula are focal outpouching arising from the pericardium. They are differentiated from congenital pericardial cysts by the presence of direct communication with the pericardial cavity. They can change in size related to body position, with symptoms related to the change in posi...
Article

Fleischner Society

The Fleischner Society is a interdisciplinary learned society with the key aim to advance the study of pathologies of the chest by the use of thoracic imaging. History Eight radiologists congregated in November 1969 to found a new society to advance the knowledge of diseases of the chest, pred...
Article

Obstructive lung disease

The term obstructive lung disease is usually a spirometric term whereby the small airways are partially obstructed by a pathological condition. It is usually characterized by some form of airway obstruction. In these patients narrowing (obstruction) of the smaller bronchi and larger bronchioles...
Article

Esophageal intubation

Esophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the esophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental esophageal intubation can happ...
Article

Subsegmental atelectasis

Subsegmental atelectasis (plural: atelectases) is a descriptive term for the mildest form of lung atelectasis, involving less than one bronchopulmonary segment. Terminology The term subsegmental atelectasis includes any loss of lung volume so small that it does not cause indirect signs of volu...
Article

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis describes thrombus formation occurring at the site of the pulmonary arterial stump, a complication following lobectomy or pneumonectomy. It is usually discovered as an incidental finding on routine follow-up chest CT scans. Epidemiology The prevalence of pulmo...
Article

Niemann-Pick disease type A

Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A) is one of a group of autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorders (see Niemann-Pick disease) that presents in early childhood and usually progresses to death within a few years. It shares the same enzyme deficiency as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-...
Article

Restrictive lung disease

Restrictive lung disease (or a restrictive ventilatory defect) is a physiological spirometric term given to a heterogeneous group of conditions that result in restricted lung expansion. It is not equal to but can be related to pulmonary fibrosis as extrapulmonary e.g. thoracic wall conditions ca...
Article

Pleuritic pain

Pleuritic pain is the primary symptom of pleurisy but also occurs with several non-pleural-related pathologies, which need to be kept in mind when someone presents in this way. Clinical presentation Pleuritic chest pain is often described by patients as being sharp and focused in nature. Chara...
Article

Pleurisy

Pleurisy (or pleuritis) refers to the disease entity characterized by inflammation of the pleura. It classically presents as pleuritic pain.  Terminology Pleurisy is often used by medical professionals and laypeople both to refer to the inflammation of the pleura and also the symptoms. Strictl...
Article

Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a virally-mediated myositis presenting as recurrent episodes of acute severe pleuritic pain. It is usually self-limiting, and serious morbidity is rare. Epidemiology Its true incidence is unknown and it is thought that it is underdiagnos...
Article

Double lung point sign (Ultrasound)

The double lung point sign refers to a sharp boundary found between relatively aerated superior lung fields and coalescent "B‐lines" (representing interstitial edema) in the basal lung fields, with a reported sensitivity of 45.6%-76.7% and a specificity of 94.8%-100% 1,3 in diagnosing transient ...
Article

Pancreaticopleural fistula

Pancreaticopleural fistulae are a rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis whereby enzymatic pancreatic fluid, either from a pancreatic pseudocyst or directly from a disrupted duct, dissects into the pleural cavity. Pancreaticopleural fistulas may also develop in the setting of trauma ...
Article

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (approach)

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE) is a basic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed for undifferentiated respiratory failure at the bedside, immediately after the physical examination, and before echocardiography. The protocol is simple and dichotomous, and takes fewer...
Article

Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces

Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces, rather than a distinct disease, represents a spectrum of radiological patterns of tumor growth mainly characterized by lesions arising or abutting the walls of cystic airspaces. Attention to this pattern has been brought in recent decades primarily d...
Article

Aortic knob

The aortic knob or knuckle refers to the frontal chest x-ray appearance of the distal aortic arch as it curves posterolaterally to continue as the descending thoracic aorta. It appears as a laterally-projecting bulge, as the medial aspect of the aorta cannot be seen separate from the mediastinum...
Article

Anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung

Anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung is an anatomical variant in which a portion of the lung (usually a basal segment) is supplied by a systemic vessel without a distinct pulmonary sequestration. Terminology It was traditionally (perhaps inappropriately since not a true sequestrat...
Article

Aortic dissection detection risk score plus D-dimer

The use of the aortic dissection detection risk score plus D-dimer is a proposed standardized strategy of safely ruling out the diagnosis of an acute aortic syndrome. Similar to how the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) negates the need for further workup of a pulmonary embolism.  Int...
Article

Aortic dissection detection risk score

The aortic dissection detection risk score (ADD-RS) is a clinical decision tool that aids in grading the pretest probability of an acute aortic dissection. Scores range from 0-3, where 0 is classed as low risk, 1 is moderate risk and 2-3 is high risk 1. Criteria The three domains in which pati...
Article

Pulmonary Mycobacterium chelonae infection

Pulmonary Mycobacterium chelonae infection is a type of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection where the causative organism is Mycobacterium chelonae. Pathology M. chelonae is classified as rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), class IV in the Runyon classification.  Radiographic fe...
Article

Cylindrical bronchiectasis

Cylindrical bronchiectasis, also known as tubular bronchiectasis, is the most commonly identified morphologic type of bronchiectasis where there is smooth uniform enlargement of bronchi with loss of the normal distal tapering of the airways but without focal outpouchings or tortuosity. For a ge...
Article

Stab wound (overview)

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is one of the late-stage post lung transplant complications. It is a clinical spirometric diagnosis characterized by an irreversible decline in the FEV1 of 20% or more relative to the highest post-transplant baseline representing one of the significant l...
Article

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough is a highly contagious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Epidemiology The incidence of pertussis in children has dramatically decreased since the introduction of pertussis vaccination. However,...
Article

Accessory phrenic nerve

The accessory phrenic nerve is an anatomical variant seen in a little over one third of patients (36%). It most commonly arises from the ansa cervicalis, or slightly less commonly, the subclavian nerve. It is unknown as to how much the accessory phrenic nerve contributes to diaphragmatic functio...
Article

Mesothelioma (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists. Pleural mesotheliomas are malignant tumors of the lining of the lungs. There is a strong association with asbestos exposure. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on mesothelioma. Summary...
Article

Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hypogammaglobulinaemia is an immune disorder characterized by a reduction in all types of gammaglobulins.  Terminology While hypogammaglobulinaemia means some loss of gammaglobulins, a total loss is termed agammaglobulinaemia which can occur in as an x linked form - X-linked agammaglobulinemia...
Article

Investigation of hemoptysis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists. Hemoptysis is the coughing up of frank blood or blood-stained mucus/pus from the lungs and it is an important indicator of pathology. Careful assessment of history, clinical examination and investigations will help elicit ...
Article

Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organizing pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...
Article

Diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern - Fleischner society guideline (2018)

In 2018, the Fleischner Society provided updated diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern based on literature review and the expert opinion of members. As a part of this white paper, diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern were updat...
Article

Bronchiectasis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Bronchiectasis refers to permanent dilatation of the airways secondary to chronic inflammation or infection. It is the common pathological response of bronchi to a variety of congenital and acquired conditions. Reference a...
Article

Tuberculosis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Tuberculosis (TB) is a non-bacterial multisystem infection that often affects the lungs. It may be a primary tuberculous infection, secondary infection or appear as chronic scarring. TB may also be seen on a chest x-ray as ...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2013 classification)

In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.  The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Article

Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
Article

Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterized by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
Article

Thoracoepigastric vein

The thoracoepigastric vein provides a communication between the superficial epigastric vein and the lateral thoracic vein as it ascends superficially on the anterolateral chest and abdominal wall. It, therefore, drains into both the superior vena cava (SVC) via the axillary vein and the inferior...
Article

Body imaging

Body imaging is the term assigned to cross-sectional imaging of the body, which radiologically refers to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It is often used by radiologists who report this region (sometimes known as body imagers/radiologists) to differentiate their primary area of interest from othe...
Article

Nodular pulmonary sarcoidosis

Nodular pulmonary sarcoidosis is a very rare manifestation of thoracic sarcoidosis, varying from 1.6% to 4% of patients with sarcoidosis. Pathology They are thought to typically consist of coalescent granulomas. Radiographic features CT  There may be distinct nodules measuring from 1 to 5 c...
Article

Talc pleurodesis

Talc pleurodesis is one of the chemical methods of pleurodesis which is a procedure performed to prevent recurrence of a pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion in benign or malignant conditions. It involves achieving an area of adhesion between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura....
Article

Acinar-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Acinar-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung is a histological subtype of non-mucinous invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. Terminology In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) 4 introd...
Article

Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide

Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (often abbreviated as DLCO) is a measure that determines how much oxygen travels from the alveoli of the lungs to the bloodstream. It is an index of the surface area available for gas exchange. In some situations is also used synonymously with ...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.