Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
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Endobronchial lipoma

Endobronchial lipomas are rare benign lesions arising from the adipose tissue in the submucosal layer of the bronchial wall. Epidemiology Rare benign tumor with a possible male predilection.  Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms include a cough, sputum, hemoptysis and dyspnea; however, ...
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Pulmonary edema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pulmonary edema refers to the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular compartments of the lung. This initially results in interstitial edema and perihilar airspace opacification. Reference article This is a su...
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Double artery sign

The double artery sign refers to the appearance of a non-dilated mucus-filled bronchus adjacent to a pulmonary artery producing the appearance of a "double artery" on CT chest. This sign is considered a feature of a central endobronchial lesion such as a mucus plug or neoplasm.
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Pulmonary meningothelial nodules

Pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules, also referred to as minute pulmonary meningothelial‐like nodules, are rare incidental interstitial pulmonary nodules that can be solitary or diffuse (diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis). Terminology They were previously called pulmonary chemodectomas,...
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Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis

Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis (DPM) is a rare condition manifested by multiple minute pulmonary meningothelial nodules (MPMNs) scattered throughout the lungs. Epidemiology There may be an increased female predilection and they tend to peak around the 5th to 7th decades of life at the ...
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Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis is an endemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.  Pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most common manifestation of this infectious disease. Disseminated/extrapulmonary (pericardial, articular) histoplasmosis is often seen in immunosuppressed patients. As such, these are includ...
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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology T...
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Organophosphate poisoning

Organophosphate poisoning is an important cause of acute neurological dysfunction and respiratory distress. Epidemiology Organophosphate poisoning is common, often as a result of suicidal ingestion (acute high-level exposure) or occupational exposure to pesticides (chronic low-level exposure) ...
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Descending necrotizing mediastinitis

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a severe form of mediastinitis and refers to an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum that usually spreads downwards from oropharyngeal, cervical, and odontogenic infection. Epidemiology Associations diabetes: more than one-third of patients...
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Causes of air trapping on high-resolution CT chest (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of air trapping on HRCT chest are: HSBC Mnemonic H: hypersensitivity pneumonitis S: sarcoidosis B: bronchiolitis obliterans C: cystic fibrosis/bronchiectasis A useful way to remember the mnemonic is recalling that once you are with HSBC, you are "trapped" ...
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Currarino-Silverman syndrome

Currarino-Silverman syndrome, also known as pectus carinatum type 2 deformity, is a rare disorder. Clinical presentation Patients present with a high carinate chest deformity due to a premature fusion of the manubriosternal joint and sternal ossification centers. Congenital heart diseases have...
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Perforating branches of internal thoracic artery

Perforating branches of the internal thoracic arteries arise from the paired internal thoracic arteries (also known as internal mammary arteries) and run in the superior six intercostal spaces. These arteries pierce the internal intercostal muscles and pectoralis major, contributing to the blood...
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Superficial endobronchial carcinoma

A superficial endobronchial lung cancer may be defined as a bronchogenic tumor of any size with its invasive component limited to the bronchial wall. It may extend into the proximal bronchus and is often classified as T1 at TNM staging. It is one of the causes of more focal bronchial wall thicke...
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Bacterial tracheitis

Exudative tracheitis, also known as bacterial tracheitis, membranous croup or membranous laryngotracheobronchitis, is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of upper airway obstruction. Epidemiology Typical age ranges from 6 to 10 years of age. Clinical presentation Bacterial trachei...
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Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion

Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion can be partial or complete, and may be a normal anatomic variant. Complete fusion can be seen at a young age. Pathological fusion can be seen in old age secondary to fusion caused by bridging osteophytes 2. It may also be seen in inflammatory art...
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GATA2 deficiency

GATA2 deficiency is a germ-line disease expressed as a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including monocytopenia, myelodysplasia, myeloid leukaemias, and lymphedema. It is a rare cause of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Clinical presentation GATA2 deficiency has considerably variable clinical manif...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)
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Palla sign

Palla sign is a sign seen on chest radiographs suggestive of pulmonary embolism, usually seen in the acute setting. Although uncommon, it can be seen along with several other described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography. Pathology Palla sign describes an enlarged right descending...
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Doege-Potter syndrome

Doege-Potter syndrome is a paraneoplastic non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia, secondary to a solitary fibrous tumor, most commonly pulmonary, secreting insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2). It is rare and more often found with higher grade solitary fibrous tumors 1-4. 
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Costoxiphoid ligament

The costoxiphoid ligaments, also known as the chondroxiphoid ligaments, are inconstant fibrous structures joining the anterior and posterior surfaces of the xiphoid to the respective surfaces of the adjacent seventh and, occasionally, sixth costal cartilages.
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Aortic transection

An aortic transection, also known as a traumatic aortic rupture, is a type of traumatic aortic injury. It is considered the second most common cause of death associated with motor vehicle accidents. Pathology It occurs from a near-complete tear through "all the layers" of the aorta due to trau...
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Haller index

The Haller index (HI), also known as the pectus index, is a simple mathematical way to assess and describe the chest cage on CT of the thorax and is used in the detection and pre/postoperative assessment of pectus excavatum 1,5. Measurement The Haller index is calculated by dividing the transv...
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Suprapleural membrane

The suprapleural membrane, also known as the Sibson, cervicothoracic or costovertebral fascia, is a dense fascial layer that is attached to the inner border of the first rib and costal cartilage anteriorly, C7 transverse process posteriorly and to the mediastinal pleura medially. It is flat and...
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Leadless cardiac pacemaker

Leadless cardiac pacemakers are a recently introduced type of cardiac conduction device. These pacemakers are self-contained right ventricular single-chamber pacemakers that are implanted percutaneously via a femoral approach 1-3. There are currently two leadless cardiac pacemakers on the market...
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Costal hook sign (flail chest)

The costal hook sign is a chest x-ray feature seen in some cases of flail chest. It represents the rotation of a fractured rib along its long axis, something that is only possible if a second fracture is present along its length, even if the second fracture is not visible 1. 
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Organizing pneumonia

Organizing pneumonia (OP) refers to a clinicopathological entity which is associated with non-specific clinical findings, radiographic findings, and pulmonary function test (PFT) results. When an underlying cause is unknown it is classified as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP; also referre...
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Pectus arcuatum

Pectus arcuatum, or “wave-like chest”, is a descriptive term is used in a situation of a mixed deformity which contains both a pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum either along the longitudinal or axial axis. It is also known as a pouter pigeon chest. There is often protrusion at the upper part...
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Platythorax

A platythorax refers to a morphological descriptor for the variation chest shape where there is a flat chest with a comparative reduction in the AP diameter when compared with the lateral diameter. It is commonly seen in pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis 3 and is due to marked upper lobe volume c...
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Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is considered the most common form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. In untreated cases, this may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis.​
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a group of chronic aspergillosis found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacteriosis or conditions such as diabetes). It can manifest as several forms 1. chronic cavitar...
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Fibrobullous disease

Fibrobullous disease is an observational finding where there are bullous spaces interspersed by areas of scarring (fibrosis). In general, there may be an apical predilection. This has been described in association with two arthritides: ankylosing spondylitis 1 rheumatoid arthritis 2
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Leukemia (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of leukemia can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are hematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of hematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturatio...
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Intralobular septal thickening

Intralobular septal thickening is a form of interstitial thickening and should be distinguished from interlobular septal thickening. It is often seen as fine linear or reticular thickening. It has been described with several conditions of variable etiology which include sarcoidosis 2 asbestos...
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Domestically acquired particulate lung disease

Domestically acquired particulate lung disease (DAPLD) or hut lung is a pneumoconiosis due to exposure from smoke from biomass fuel used in cooking in an enclosed space.  Epidemiology Typically women who present with symptoms of a pneumoconiosis without the history of occupational exposure 2,3...
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that most frequently develops following massive or repeated pulmonary embolism. Terminology The term CTEPH should be used for patients with chronic thromboembolic disease and pulmonary hypert...
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HIV associated follicular bronchiolitis

HIV associated follicular bronchiolitis is a form of bronchiolitis that occurs in those with HIV. Epidemiology It has been described in both HIV-positive children and adults. Pathology It is manifested by bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia thought to be due to repetitive antige...
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Acute lupus pneumonitis

Acute lupus pneumonitis is one of the presentations of thoracic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical presentation Acute lupus pneumonitis presents with acute onset of fever, cough, tachypnea, and hypoxia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph  Appearances are non-specif...
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Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient, into the pulmonary arteries. Usage Historically, pulmonary artery...
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Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Lymphoceles of the thoracic duct, also known as thoracic duct cysts, are lymph-filled collections/dilatations that can arise from any portion of the thoracic duct. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment...
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Papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung is a histological subtype of non-mucinous invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. Terminology In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) 5 int...
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Barium sulfate contrast medium

Barium sulfate (BaSO4), often just called barium in radiology parlance, is an ionic salt of barium (Ba), a metallic chemical element with atomic number 56. Barium sulfate forms the basis for a range of contrast media used in fluoroscopic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike barium ...
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Loculated pneumothorax

A loculated pneumothorax is a form of pneumothorax where a pocket of pleural air is trapped within a localized area. They may occur in a number of situations including in patients with acute respiratory disease treated with mechanical ventilation 1 and status post pleural aspiration in the conte...
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Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheobronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or esophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treatme...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injury (MAI) is a mild form of blunt traumatic aortic injury which are limited to the aortic intima and are recognized more frequently due to the use of high-resolution vascular imaging in trauma. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aor...
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RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
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Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differential diagnoses can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease, e.g. pleural thickening skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
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Right ventricular dysfunction

Right ventricular dysfunction usually results from either pressure overload, volume overload, or a combination.  It occurs in a number of clinical scenarios, including: pressure overload   cardiomyopathies: ischemic, congenital valvular heart disease arrhythmias sepsis It can manifest as ...
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Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember conditions with upper lobe predominance in chest radiology are: STEP BREASTS Mnemonics STEP S: sarcoidosis, silicosis T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia P: pneumoconiosis BREASTS B: berylliosis R: radiation fibrosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second posterior ...
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Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...
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Nodular bronchiectatic mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease

Nodular bronchiectatic mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease is a morphological form of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection although it is worthwhile understanding that there can be a spectrum of the disease with mixed forms.  Epidemiology This form may have a greater predi...
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Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles are confusingly named, as they are not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions fr...
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Respiratory bronchiole

Respiratory bronchioles are the final division of the bronchioles within the lung.  They are a continuation of the terminal bronchioles and are approximately 0.5mm in size 1. They are comprised of simple cuboidal epithelium and contain a thin layer of smooth muscle and elastic fibers 2. Importan...
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Right lower lobe bronchus

The right lower lobe bronchus is a lobar (secondary) bronchus that is the continuation of the bronchus intermedius distally to the origin of the right middle lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The segmental bronchi divisions and bronchopulmonary segments supplied of the right lower lobe bronchus are...
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Bronchospasm

Bronchospasm refers to a sudden constriction of the bronchial wall muscles. Pathology It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It can be precipitated in many situations certain forms of pulmonary edema  her...
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Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialized radiographic projection utilized in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, but still utilized in postoperative imaging. Indications The serendipi...
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Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series The side of obliquity pertains to the joint of interest i.e. RAO to assess the right sternoclavicular joint. However, this projection is often performed...
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NEXUS Chest

NEXUS Chest is a clinical decision rule that supports the appropriate use of thoracic imaging in trauma. There are seven criteria 1,2: >60 years old rapid deceleration defined as fall > 6 meters or motor vehicle crash >64 km/hour chest pain intoxication abnormal alertness or mental status ...
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Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Indications  The PA view of the sternoclavicular joint is often requested in the con...
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Drowning (postmortem findings)

Drowning is one of the most prevalent causes of non-natural death with typical postmortem imaging findings. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 360,000 annual deaths occur due to drowning. This article concerns itself with postmortem appearances in fatalities from dro...
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Small airways

Small airways traditionally refer to distal airways that are 2-3 mm or less in caliber 3 with a wall thickness of less than 0.5 mm 5. These therefore include terminal bronchi (have cartilage) as well as bronchioles (no cartilage). They may or may not be directly visible on CT. Related pathology...
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Right middle lobe bronchus

The bronchus intermedius divides into the right middle lobe bronchus and the right lower lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The right middle lobe bronchus originates from the bronchus intermedius around 2.5 cm distal to the right upper lobe bronchus 1. It branches in an obliquely inferior, anterior ...
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Pseudo Meigs syndrome

Pseudo Meigs syndrome refers to a clinical syndrome of pleural effusion and ascites associated with an ovarian tumor that is not a fibroma or a fibroma-like tumor. Pathology Entities that have been reported to result in pseudo Meigs syndrome include Krukenberg tumors colon carcinoma metastas...
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Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
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Bronchioles

Bronchioles are the branches of the tracheobronchial tree that by definition, are lacking in submucosal hyaline cartilage.  Gross anatomy The bronchioles typically begin beyond the tertiary segmental bronchi and are described as conducting bronchioles. Following the tertiary segmental bronchi,...
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Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III) See also Stanford classification of aortic dissection DeBakey classification
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Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC)

The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) may be utilized to negate the need for further pulmonary embolism (PE) workup in patients who are deemed low risk for PE but in whom the diagnosis is being considered 1. Criteria age <50 pulse <100 bpm oxygen saturation >95% on room air absenc...
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Posterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of anterior and posterior intercostal arteries. The posterior intercostal arteries arise from the aorta and in part supply the spine and spinal cord and thus are considered segmental arteries. Gross Anatomy There are 11 paired arteries that constitu...
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Alveoli

The alveoli (singular: alveolus) are tiny hollow air sacs that comprise the basic unit of respiration. Gross Anatomy Alveoli are found within the lung parenchyma and are found at the terminal ends of the respiratory tree, clustered around alveolar sacs and alveolar ducts.  Each alveolus is app...
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Chlamydia pneumonia

Chlamydia pneumonia is a form of atypical pneumonia.  Pathology It is caused by the organism Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a species of Chlamydophila) which is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans. Radiographic features CT chest Non-specific with overlap of features with pneu...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp., usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common species of Coccidioides are Coccidioides immitis and Cocc...
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Paracoccidioidomycosis

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic fungal infection endemic in South America that, although asymptomatic in most infected patients, may progress to debilitating symptomatic forms. The chronic disease commonly affects adult males and manifest with lung and mucocutaneous lesions. Epidemio...
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Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Elephant trunk repair

An elephant trunk repair is a type of open repair procedure devised to address combined aneurysms, it is often a two staged procedure wherein the arch repair is facilitated by sternotomy and a second staged procedure is performed via left thoracotomy for the descending or thoracoabdominal aorta....
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Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection.  Indications The oblique view will show the sternal body in the AP plane, it is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing t...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. Indications The PA view specifically focuses on the anterior ribs. The rib series...
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Right upper lobe bronchus

The right upper lobe bronchus is the first of two secondary bronchi produced by the bifurcation of the right main bronchus. The other is the bronchus intermedius. Gross anatomy The right upper lobe bronchus is given off approximately 2.5 cm from the bifurcation of the trachea and is the superi...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection that is now rarely used due to the ubiquity of CT.  It is chiefly used in the pediatric population. Indication Undertaken to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to...
Article

Sail sign (disambiguation)

There are numerous sail signs in radiology, where a normal structure is displaced or a pathology creates the appearance of a sail: elbow sail sign: the raised anterior fat pad on an elbow radiograph thymic sail sign: normal thymus on a pediatric chest radiograph spinnaker-sail sign (angel win...
Article

Secondary lobar bronchi

The secondary lobar bronchi or just lobar bronchi are the first subdivision of the main (or primary) bronchi. Like the primary and tertiary bronchi, they are conducting airways that are lined by cartilage rings. The left main bronchus gives rise to 2 secondary bronchi: left upper lobe bronchus...
Article

Bronchus intermedius

The bronchus intermedius is one of the two bronchi which the right main bronchus bifurcates into, the other being the right upper lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The bronchus intermedius runs distal to the right upper lobe bifurcation and follows the trajectory of the right main bronchus 1. Its m...
Article

Thoracolith

Thoracoliths (or thoracolithiasis if multiple) are benign intrapleural loose bodies. They are rare, calcified pleural-based nodules that are almost always incidental. They are usually considered mobile, and more common on the left. Epidemiology They have a reported incidence of less than 0.1%....
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Primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma

Primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a form of thoracic sarcoma and an extremely rare tumor of the thorax. Epidemiology The reported incidence rate is very low at around  ~0.001-0.03%. Most patients are around 40 and 60 years at time of diagnosis.  Pathology They are a smooth muscle tu...
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Post-pneumonectomy syndrome

Post-pneumonectomy syndrome is delayed complication of pneumonectomy characterized by respiratory compromise caused by severe mediastinal shift and counterclockwise rotation of the heart and great vessels. Epidemiology Rare delayed complication of pneumonectomy, which more commonly involves th...
Article

Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices are implantable cardiac devices which are placed in the left atrial appendage for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation who have contraindications to pharmacological anticoagulation. Depending on the device they may be inserted percuta...
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Mean pulmonary arterial pressure

Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP or MPAP) can be estimated by echocardiography, although the gold standard remains measurements taken directly during right heart catheterization. It is calculated by the formula: (PASystolic pressure +2 PADiastolic pressure) / 3 The pulmonary arterial sys...
Article

Acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula

An acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula refers to a pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus due to a secondary cause. Pathology Acquired causes of tracheo-esophageal fistulae can be divided into those that are related to malignancy (common) and those from other causes (unco...
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Signs article structure

Articles on signs are in general short articles and do not usually require subheadings. ======================================================================= Signs are numerous in radiology and typically relate to a specific appearance or feature that is reminiscent of an object. A named sig...

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