Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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Thoracic splenosis

Thoracic splenosis refers to the autotransplantation of splenic tissue into the pleural space which typically occurs after trauma. It may occur in approximately 18% of patients with combined diaphragmatic and splenic injuries and is more common after penetrating injuries. Pathology Splenic tis...
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Tumor like conditions of the pleura

There are many tumor-like conditions of the pleura. These are non-malignant entities that on imaging may mimic a pleural tumor. focal pleural origin pleural plaques thoracic splenosis thoracic endometriosis pleural pseudotumor extrapleural origin extrapleural hematoma diffuse diffuse p...
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Pulmonary calcification

Pulmonary calcification has many causes and varying morphology: calcific pulmonary nodules or masses micronodules ​healed varicella pneumonia occupational disease/pneumoconioses silicosis coal worker's pneumoconiosis stannosis baritosis pulmonary hemosid...
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Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. Indications The AP oblique view specifically focuses on the axillary ribs. The rib series is often considered to be an unnece...
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Oleothorax

Oleothorax is a historical treatment method for cavitary tuberculosis of the upper lobes of the lungs. It was used prior to the introduction of effective antituberculous drugs and thus was generally discontinued after the 1950s. Technique Oleothorax is an intra- or extrapleural injection of oi...
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Urinothorax

Urinothorax (plural: urinothoraces), also known as urothorax, is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space. Clinical presentation Patients present with varying degrees of respiratory distress depending on the amount of fluid that has accumulated...
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Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
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Miliary sarcoidosis

Miliary sarcoidosis is a rare thoracic manifesation of sarcoidosis where there are numerous miliary-like nodules scattered throughout the lungs. It is thought to represent less than 1% of cases.  Epidemiology From the limited case reports available, there is some suggestion that this form may ...
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Fibrosarcoma of the chest wall

Fibrosarcoma of the chest wall refers to a malignant tumor arising from the chest wall. Epidemiology It typically presents in adults, although the age range of presentation is wide. It rarely occurs as a congenital form in infants and children 2. Pathology In the thorax, fibrosarcomas usuall...
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Ankylosing spondylitis (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis can be varied. For a general discussion of the condition refer to the parent article on ankylosing spondylitis. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and the disease spectrum includes: upper lobe fibrocystic changes -...
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Hyparterial bronchus

A hyparterial bronchus refer to any bronchus originating inferior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, the right superior lobar bronchus can be referred to by its anatomical relationship to the pulmonary arteries as being eparterial. The term may be encountered in the classificatio...
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Eparterial bronchus

The eparterial bronchus is a synonymous term for the right superior lobar bronchus. Its name is derived from the bronchus being the only one originating superior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, all other bronchi can be referred to by their anatomical relationship to the pulmona...
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CT chest (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest CT is a computed tomography examination of the thoracic cavity performed for a variety of reasons, from suspected cancer to penetrating chest trauma. A CT chest can be performed with or without IV contrast and when I...
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CVC position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray CVC (central venous catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; for a more in-depth reference article see centr...
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Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnificat...
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Air-bronchogram (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Air-bronchograms are gas-filled bronchi surrounded by alveoli filled with fluid, pus or other material 1. It is a very useful sign because it is highly sensitive and specific for the presence of lung consolidation rather th...
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Pleural fluid (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pleural fluid describes fluid within the pleural space. Fluid may be simple fluid, pus, hemorrhage and therefore is a broad description that includes, but not synonymous with pleural effusion. Pus in the pleural space may b...
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Pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumothorax (pl: pneumothoraces) describes gas within the pleural space. This may occur because of a number of reasons and may be spontaneous. Patients will not always be symptomatic and treatment will depend on the cause....
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Metastases to the thymus

Metastases to the thymus are rare, although they are probably under reported due to lack of symptoms.  Pathology Varied primary tumors have been reported to metastasize to the thymus 1,2: breast cancer lung cancer ovarian cancer colorectal carcinoma gastric cancer prostate cancer testic...
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Atelectasis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Atelectasis describes small areas of collapsed lung. Atelectasis and collapse both describe the same pathophysiology, though atelectasis tends to be used to describe small areas of lung that are not fully expanded, whereas ...
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Pleural pseudotumor

Pleural pseudotumors usually refer to encysted focal pleural fluid collections located within a lung fissure. Pathology In the usual situation, there is a similar retractile force applied to the entire pleural space by adjacent lung. When there is a pleural effusion, the elastic recoil of the ...
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Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers are a potential long-term complication of radiotherapy to the chest.  Besides lung cancer, sarcomas (osteosarcomas are the most common arising from the irradiated bones, and malignant fibrous histiocytomas the most frequently arising from the soft tissues), breast...
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Left lower lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left lower lobe bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross anatomy The left lower lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
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Left upper lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left upper lobe bronchus and the left lower lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross Anatomy The left upper lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
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Transversus thoracis muscle

The transversus thoracis muscle is the innermost muscle of the anterior thoracic wall (deep to external intercostal and internal intercostal muscles).   Gross anatomy The transversus thoracis is a thin band of muscle and tendon arising from the lower posterior surface of the sternum, posterior...
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Thoracic spine sign (ultrasound)

The thoracic spine sign, or spine sign, on lung ultrasound is an indirect indicator of the presence of a pleural effusion or hemothorax. It represents the visualization of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm which are usually not seen unless there is a fluid collectio...
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Brock model for pulmonary nodules

The Brock model, also known as the PanCan model, is a multivariable model that estimates the risk that a pulmonary nodule on CT scan is lung cancer. The model was developed from participants enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study 1, has been validated in lung cancer s...
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Costovertebral joint

The costovertebral joint is the articulations between the ribs and the vertebral column. Gross Anatomy The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae via two distinctly different joints: costovertebral joint - articulation between the head of the rib and the vertebral body costotransverse j...
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Costochondral joint

The costochondral joints are the joints between each rib and its costal cartilage. They are primary cartilaginous joints. These joints represent the demarcation of the unossified and ossified part of the rib 1. The joint is held together by periosteum, with the lateral aspect of the costal carti...
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Pleural tags

Pleural tags refer to slender bridges of soft tissue seen on CT scans that extend between masses in the lungs and the pleura.  Pathology  They result from interlobular septal thickening of the lung. These septa may be distorted and reoriented or maybe normal in course. The septa are however ab...
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Manubriosternal joint

The manubriosternal joint, sometimes referred to as the sternomanubrial joint, is the articulation between the upper two parts of the sternum, the manubrium and sternal body.  It is at the level of the sternal angle or angle of Louis, which is at the 2nd costal cartilage and the intervertebral d...
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Cystic bronchiectasis

Cystic bronchiectasis is one of the less common morphological forms of bronchiectasis. It may be present on its own or may occur in combination with other forms of bronchiectasis. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on bronchiectasis. Radiographic features It is characterize...
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Central tendon of diaphragm

The muscle fibers of the diaphragm converge and attach to the central tendon of the diaphragm.  It is a thin but strong layer of aponeurosis which forms an intergral part of respiration. Gross Anatomy The central tendon of the diaphragm is located near the center of the diaphragmatic muscle bu...
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Visceral pleural invasion

Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura, and in some cases may result in a cancer crossing a fissure to invade an adjacent lobe of the lung. It is considered an aggressive sign and o...
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Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
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Pulmonary arterial dissection

Pulmonary arterial dissection is extremely rare but can be a fatal situation. Only a handful of cases have been described in live patients. Pathology It is mostly described in those with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  It can progress to a pulmonary artery aneurysm and fatal spontan...
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FEV1/FVC ratio

The FEV1/FVC ratio (FEV1%), also known as the Tiffeneau-Pinelli index, is a spirometric parameter and refers to a calculated ratio which represents the proportion of a patients vital capacity that they are able to expire in the first second of forced expiration. FEV1% is used in the diagnosis a...
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Lung hyperinflation

Lung hyperinflation is a common feature of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also linked to aging and other chronic diseases that cause airflow obstruction. Pathology The airflow limitation during expiration is produced by two factors: destruction of the lung p...
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Migrating pericardial cyst

Migrating pericardial cysts or wandering pericardial cysts are an unusual form of pericardial cysts. They are usually pedunculated and change in position on serial imaging but have all other imaging characteristics supportive of a pericardial or pleuro-pericardial cyst.
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Sternal body

The sternal body or gladiolus is the middle and largest of the three parts of the sternum.  It is formed by the fusion of four sternebrae which finish ossifying after puberty. Gross anatomy The sternal body is the longest of the three parts of the sternum and is widest near its lower end. It i...
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Xiphisternum

The xiphisternum (also known as the xiphoid process or simply the xiphoid) is the smallest of the three parts of the sternum (manubrium, body or gladiolus, and xiphisternum). It arises from the inferior and posterior margin of the sternal body and projects inferiorly. It is a small cartilaginous...
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Right ventricle

The right ventricle (RV) is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium (RA) and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve ...
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Pulmonary haemophilus influenzae infection

Pulmonary haemophilus influenzae infection refers to infection of lung with the organism Haemophilus influenzae which is a gram-negative bacillus. Epidemiology The infections can exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and can cause pneumonia, particularly in older adults. It can also...
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Hemorrhagic pneumonia

Hemorrhagic pneumonia refers to a descriptive term for pneumonia (infective - inflammatory consolidation of the lung) that is complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage. It can be localized or diffuse to varying degrees depending on the extent of involvement +/- etiological agent. Pathology The preci...
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Fluid bronchogram sign

The fluid bronchogram sign can be seen on chest CT or ultrasound as the presence of fluid attenuation material within respiratory bronchioles with surrounding collapsed or consolidated lung. The presence of this sign suggests endobronchial obstruction as a precipitating cause for consolidation/...
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Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
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Spontaenous hemopneumothorax

Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a subtype of a hemopneumothorax where there is an accumulation of blood and air within the pleural space in the absence of trauma or other definitive cause. Pathology The source of bleeding is uncertain but in many cases can result from shearing of the adhesions...
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Tracheobronchial tree

The tracheobronchial tree is the branching tree of airways beginning at the larynx and extending inferiorly and peripherally into the lungs as bronchioles. The luminal diameter decreases as the branching increases more peripherally into the lungs. The walls of the airway down to the level of the...
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Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
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Mediastinal widening (differential)

The differential diagnoses for mediastinal widening include: traumatic aortic injury vascular anomalies unfolded aorta thoracic aortic aneurysm double SVC aberrant right subclavian artery azygos continuation of the IVC pneumomediastinum lung atelectasis pulmonary masses abutting the m...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. Indication The AP lordotic projection is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by ov...
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Chest wall lipoma

Chest wall lipomas are benign fat containing thoracic lesions.  Epidemiology While they can occur at any age, they typically occur in older patients who are 50-70 years of age, and they are most frequent in those with increased body mass index. Pathology They are well-circumscribed encapsula...
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Esophageal lipoma

Esophageal lipomas (or lipomata) are rare fat-containing esophageal lesions. Epidemiology They may account for approximately 0.4% of the benign tumors of the alimentary tract 1. There may be greater male predilection. The average age of presentation is around 50 years.  Clinical presentation ...
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Multilobar pneumonia

Multilobar pneumonia, as the name suggests, is a lobar pneumonia affecting multiple lobes. Patients with community-acquired multilobar pneumonia have a worse prognosis with longer admissions, more need for ventilatory support and more frequent treatment failure 1. 
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Ball of wool sign (hydatid cyst)

The ball of wool sign, also referred to as the yarn sign or congealed water lily sign, is an ultrasound appearance, representing degeneration of hydatid cysts (WHO class CE 4). The inner side of the cyst detaches from the cyst wall and folds on itself, causing a change from anechoic (fluid) to a...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Venous drainage of the thoracic wall

The venous drainage of the thoracic wall drains deoxygenated venous blood from the periphery of the thoracic cage back into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy Anterior thoracic wall Anterior intercostal veins The anterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just infer...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena cava a...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the superior...
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Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
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Pulmonary trunk

The pulmonary trunk, also known as main pulmonary artery (mPA), (TA: truncus pulmonalis) is the solitary arterial output from the right ventricle, transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Gross anatomy The pulmonary trunk is approximately 50 mm long and 30 mm wide (most au...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a form of lipoid pneumonia. Please refer to the main article for a broader discussion.  In terms of the onset of the presentation, it can be divided into two different forms: acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia uncommon and typically caused by an episode of aspirati...
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Vitamin E

Vitamin E (the tocopherols) are a group of fat-soluble vitamins that act as antioxidants. Vitamin E are also hematinics. hypovitaminosis E is rarely seen outside premature infants hypervitaminosis E is extremely rare as the toxicity of vitamin E is low except in chronic (usually >1 year) high ...
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Intrapulmonary lipoma

Intrapulmonary lipomas are rare fat containing benign lung lesions. Epidemiology They mostly occur in the adult population, with occurence in the pediatric population extremely rare. Pathology As with all lipomas they are composed of adipose tissue. The origin of the peripheral intrapulmonar...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Subcostal muscle

The subcostal muscle has variable anatomy and forms part of the intercostal muscle group. It lies on the deep surface of the innermost intercostal muscle in the posterior chest, near the angles of the ribs, usually running over 2-3 intercostal spaces. It is most common in the upper (1-4) and low...
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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages form part of the thoracic cage and anterior chest wall. There are ten costal cartilages bilaterally, one for each of the corresponding 1st to 10th ribs, and each of the first seven ribs forms one of the seven costochondral joints. Costal cartilages 1-7 articulate with the ...
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Thoracic cage

The thoracic cage refers to the skeleton of the thorax: thoracic vertebral column twelve pairs of ribs: collectively referred to as the rib cage costal cartilages sternum
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Retrocrural space

The retrocrural space is located posterior to the right and left crura of the diaphragm and is a direct continuation of the mediastinum. It allows the passage of a number of structures from the chest to the retroperitoneum, including: arteries aorta veins azygos vein hemiazygos vein lympha...
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Subpleural sparing

Subpleural sparing in thoracic radiology is an imaging descriptor usually used on cross sectional imaging (mainly CT) where the pathology that affects the lungs spares the extreme peripheral lung margin abutting the pleura - chest wall. It can be seen in a number of situations non specific int...
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Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis

Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis has been reported as an uncommon complication in patients treated with immunotherapy agents such as monoclonal antibodies. It was first reported in TNF inhibitors used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and has also been reported in various immunotherapy...
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Airway pressure release ventilation

Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is an alternative mode for mechanical ventilation. It can be adopted as an alternative method for difficult-to-oxygenate patients with acute lung injury (ALI)  / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is usually not recommended in patients who ...
Article

Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
Article

Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
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Sjögren syndrome (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of Sjögren syndrome are common and sometimes detected before the syndrome diagnosis. Thoracic/lung involvement many occur in ∼9–20% of patients 4.  For a broad discussion on the syndrome and its typical lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, please refer to the...
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Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia

Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia is a form of drug induced interstitial lung disease. The precipitation of radiological evidence of pulmonary infiltrates, clinical acute respiratory illness in the context of a good temporal relationship with commencement of the agent and no clear...
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Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal,. It is the mos...
Article

Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the scalene triangle, and distally throu...
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Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the pediatric population. Radiographic features The brachiocephalic artery usually takes its origin to the left of the trachea. The artery subs...
Article

Fat stranding (CT)

Fat stranding is a common sign seen on CT wherever fat can be found. It is most commonly seen in abdomen/pelvis, but can also be seen in retroperitoneum, thorax, neck and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localizing both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stran...
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Bronchopleural fistula vs lung abscess

Following are the main differentiating features of bronchopleural fistula versus lung abscess on plain radiographs and CT 1:  Bronchopleural fistula bronchopleural fistulas have mostly lenticular shape of space length of gas-fluid level in bronchopleural fistula in different projections is un...
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Erect chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Erect chest x-rays are standard positioning but are also a specific examination performed for the assessment of subdiaphragmatic free gas (pneumoperitoneum). Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a m...
Article

Apical lung diseases (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to remember common apical lung diseases are: SET CARP CARPETS (anagram of SET CARP) Mnemonics S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
Article

Lipoblastoma of lung

Lipoblastoma of the lung is a fat derived thoracic tumor. Epidemiology They occur during infancy and early childhood. More than 90% of cases are diagnosed in children less than 3 years of age, with nearly 75% occurring before the age of 12 months Pathology Lipoblastomas are rare soft-tissue ...
Article

Adrenal tuberculosis

Tuberculous adrenalitis is the result of adrenal mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. Its incidence has decreased in the western world with the declining incidence of tuberculosis. Pathology As the tuberculous infection causes destruction of the adrenal cortex, primary adrenal insufficie...
Article

British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules

British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules were published in August 2015 for the management of pulmonary nodules seen on CT. In the United Kingdom, they supersede the Fleischner Society guidelines. They are based initially on identifying whether the nodule is solid or subsolid an...
Article

Lung decortication

A lung decortication is a cardiothoracic surgical procedure usually performed for situations such as a chronic thoracic empyema or a chronic hemothorax where a diseased, often chronically infected, pleura is debrided from the adjacent lung and removed. It is also sometimes performed in selected ...
Article

Sternum

The sternum (plural: sterna or sternums) completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphisternum (a.k.a. xiphoid process). They articulate via secondary cartilaginous joints via hyaline cartilage w...

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