Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide preope...
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Polymyositis (pulmonary manifestations)

Lung involvement in polymyositis can have a number of manifestations including those resembling interstitial lung disease. For a general discussion of polymyositis, please refer to the parent article. Radiographic features The lungs may present with a mixture of different fibrotic patterns, e...
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Double lumen endotracheal tube

A double lumen endotracheal tube is a type of intubation device where there are two lumens. Indications It is designed to isolate the lungs from one another anatomically and/or physiologically: anatomical lung separation: isolation of diseased lung from contaminating the non-diseased lung ma...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of the trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia o...
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Ventriculopleural shunt

Ventriculopleural shunting is an alternative option for the diversion of CSF and relief of hydrocephalus. In this technique, the distal catheter is placed in the pleural space. It is an alternative to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (often considered the next most used alternative). Complications ...
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Shrinking lung syndrome

Shrinking lung syndrome refers to a rare thoracic complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) characterized by: unexplained dyspnea restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests elevated hemidiaphragm Epidemiology As with SLE in general, it is thought to carry a increased female pr...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...
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Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy D: diaphragmatic hernia
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Left main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
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Right main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

Two useful mnemonics to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus the number of letters per structure Mnemon...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Tracheobronchial injury

Tracheobronchial injury is a serious but uncommon manifestation of chest trauma. It is usually a fatal injury with only a small percentage of patients making it to hospital. Given the magnitude of force required to injure the major airways, there are often multiple chest injuries and other body ...
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Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing, leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view is of lesser quality than both the AP erect and the PA view for many reasons, yet sometimes ...
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Small pulmonary nodules (HRCT chest approach)

Small pulmonary lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for 5-10 mm lung nodules and are divided into three main categories based on their distribution pattern: centrilobular perilymphatic random Terminology Radiologists often informally refer to indeterminate small pulmonary...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia (American thoracic society criteria for histopathological diagnosis)

American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are as follows:  advanced subpleural or paraseptal fibrosis +/- honeycombing  patchy temporally heterogeneous fibrosis fibroblastic foci the absence of features against UIP inf...
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Triangle of safety

The triangle of safety is an anatomical region in the axilla that forms a guide as to the safe position for intercostal catheter (ICC) placement. With the arm abducted, the apex is the axilla, and the triangle is formed by the: lateral border of the pectoralis major anteriorly lateral border o...
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Lung point sign

The lung point sign is a highly specific ultrasound sign of pneumothorax. It involves visualizing the point where the visceral pleura (lung) begins to separate from the parietal pleural (chest wall) at the margin of a pneumothorax.  In the absence of pneumothorax, the two pleural layers slide a...
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Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient.  Indications The erect anteroposterior chest vi...
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Middle mediastinal mass

The differential diagnosis for a middle mediastinal mass includes 1-3: lymphadenopathy aneurysm e.g. aortic, pulmonary artery, bronchial artery congenital cyst pericardial cyst foregut duplication cyst (e.g. esophageal, bronchial) pericardial tumor primary/secondary cardiac tumor neuroge...
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Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Indications This orthogonal view to a frontal chest radiograph may be performed as an adjunct in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view can be particularly useful in as...
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Chest (PA view)

The posteroanterior (PA) chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. Indications The chest x-ray is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view is frequently used to aid in diagnosing a range of acute and chronic...
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Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung pulmona...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...
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Twelfth rib

The twelfth rib is an atypical rib. It is the shortest rib, and one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 12th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T12 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. It also lacks a costal groove and angle. internal surface ...
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Eleventh rib

The atypical 11th rib is one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 11th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T11 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. The angle is slight. Its costal groove is shallow. The internal surface of this rib faces slightl...
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Atypical ribs

Owing to their features, the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs are considered atypical ribs. Some authors also include the second and tenth ribs as atypical. Atypical features are summarized below: first rib strongest, broadest and most curved tubercle at the inner border marks the attachment ...
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Mediastinal hemangioma

Mediastinal hemangioma is a location-specific subtype of a hemangioma. Epidemiology Their incidence accounts for less than 0.5% among all mediastinal masses 1. Clinical presentation Up to half of patients may be asymptomatic 1. Others may present with non-specific symptoms, such as cough, ch...
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Plexogenic arteriopathy

Plexogenic arteriopathy has been a term used to describe a constellation of vascular changes occurring in those with pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is considered the histologic hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; it is seen in approximately 75% of cases 3. The term for t...
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Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Some authors however include ribs 2 and 10 also atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The infe...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterized by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
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Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
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Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonics 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment...
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Geneva score

The Geneva score is a clinical decision rule used to estimate the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which this diagnosis was considered. The criteria were originally published by the clinical team of the Geneva University Hospital in 2001 1, and revised and simplifie...
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Pseudopneumomediastinum

Pseudopneumomediastinum is the false impression, usually on a chest x-ray, of pneumomediastinum. Correctly identifying pneumomediastinum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessary investigation and possible treatment. Causes include: Mach band superimposed...
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Lung hilum

The lung hila or roots are found on the medial aspect of each lung. The left and right lung roots are similar but not identical. Gross anatomy Left hilum In the left hilum the left pulmonary artery occupies the upper part. Below this is the left main bronchus. There are two pulmonary veins, o...
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Ribs

The ribs form the main structure of the thoracic cage protecting the thoracic organs, however their main function is to aid respiration3. Gross anatomy There are 12 pairs of ribs which are separated by intercostal spaces. The first seven ribs progressively increase in length, the lower five ri...
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Unifocalisation procedure

A unifocalisation procedure is a corrective surgical technique used in patients with complete pulmonary artery atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this technique, the collateral vessels supplying blood from the aorta directly to the lungs are brought into continuit...
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Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot

Total repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a corrective surgical procedure that involves closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) and relief of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction. Procedure Most patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) undergo elective surgical repair between ...
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Niemann-Pick disease type B

Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B), along with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A), is an autosomal recessive disorder due to acid sphingomyelinase deficiency resulting in abnormal storage of sphingomyelin. Common manifestation of NPD-B includes hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, and variab...
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Diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern - ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT (2018)

As a part of international evidence-based guidelines adopted by a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and the Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT), specific diagnostic HRCT criteria for...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT chest approach

The approach to HRCT chest in patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is with the aim to: make sure an appropriate study requested i.e. HRCT chest with optimal individually adjusted protocol and ensure adequacy of the HRCT chest quality (see imaging protocol below) meti...
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Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days
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Third mogul sign

The third mogul sign can be seen on frontal chest radiograph in the presence of left atrial enlargement. It refers to an extra mogul or bump along the upper left cardiac silhouette just below the left main bronchus. The third mogul sign commonly represents the enlarged left atrial appendage, pa...
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Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and etiologies is helpful...
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Fluoroscopic evaluation of esophagectomy

Fluoroscopic evaluation of esophagectomy is an important study, given the high rate of complication following esophagectomy (~10-20% rate of leak). Although the approach will differ slightly depending on the type of esophagectomy performed, the principles are similar. Procedure Preprocedural e...
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Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit.  Chest radiographs may inadvertently be acquired in expiration (instead of inspiration), and this will affect interpretation with the cardiac silhouette appearing enla...
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Box-shaped heart

A box-shaped heart is a radiographic description given to the cardiac silhouette in some cases of Ebstein anomaly. The classic appearance of this finding is caused by the combination of the following features: huge right atrium that may fill the entire right hemithorax shelved appearance of th...
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Fat containing thoracic lesions

There is a long list of fat containing thoracic lesions. They may involve the mediastinum, lung, pleura or chest wall. Differential diagnosis includes:  intrapulmonary: fat containing pulmonary lesions pulmonary hamartoma endobronchial lipoma intrapulmonary lipoma lipoid pneumonia myeloli...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lungs are a location-specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Epidemiology They are very rare with their incidence reported at approximately 0.04-1% of all the pulmonary neoplasms 1. While it can affect any age group, around 25% of cases ...
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Megaesophagus

Megaesophagus or diffuse esophageal dilatation can be caused by a variety of conditions.  Pathology Etiology Some of the more common causes are given below 1-3: esophageal dysmotility achalasia Chagas disease scleroderma distal obstruction malignant stricture, e.g. esophageal cancer, ca...
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Cirrhosis (pulmonary manifestations)

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) intrathoracic portosystemic collateral vessel formation acute respiratory distress syndr...
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Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
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Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
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Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonitis

Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia is one of the two histological subtypes of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). It is less common compared with fibrotic NSIP but carries a much better prognosis.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include insidious onset of...
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Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
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Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
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Chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-rays are performed frequently in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially very sick) patients.  A chest x-ray can be performed in the radiology department (usually with the patient standing up) or b...
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Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
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Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to the process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium rep...
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Rastelli procedure

The Rastelli procedure is a surgical procedure to correct certain combinations of cardiovascular defects in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Rationale The operation is based on a redirection of ventricular outflows using an intracardiac baffle that tunnels the left ventricle to...
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Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
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Tracheobronchial branching anomalies

Tracheobronchial branching anomalies can be seen as an isolated finding or accompanying heterotaxy syndromes, pulmonary sling, and conditions associated with pulmonary underdevelopment (agenesis and aplasia), including the scimitar syndrome. Abnormal branching patterns include: right sided iso...
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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
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Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply heart failure, refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and ...
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Pulmonary chondroma

Pulmonary chondromas are rare, benign cartilaginous tumors of the lungs, and form part of the Carney triad although they can also arise sporadically. Epidemiology Sporadic pulmonary chondromas occur most frequently in middle-aged males, while those associated with Carney triad occur most frequ...
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Atrio-esophageal fistula

Atrio-esophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the esophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of at...
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Extrapleural hematoma

Extrapleural hematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural hematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat is ...
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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is the most common disease of the neuromuscular junction and presents with weakness worsened by exertion but improving with rest.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at 15-20 per 100,000 1,2. Females are more affected (3:1) under the age of 40 years, but males are more a...
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Thymic sail sign

The thymic sail sign represents a triangular-shaped inferior margin of the normal thymus seen on a neonatal frontal chest radiograph. It is more commonly seen on the right side, but can also be bilateral. It is seen in 3-15% of all cases. This sign should not be confused with the spinnaker sail ...
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Thymic notch sign

The thymic notch sign represents the normal thymus in a newborn on a frontal chest radiograph. Interruption of the cardiac silhouette forms a notch, which may be seen on either side, but more frequently is seen on the left side.   See also thymic sail sign thymic wave sign  
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Pulmonary alveolar edema

Pulmonary alveolar edema is a particular pattern of pulmonary edema where most of the fluid build up is in the alveolar spaces. The onset of alveolar edema may also be associated with direct pressure-induced damage to the alveolar epithelium. It can sometimes have a central perihilar pattern. Al...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign, also known as the hands-up or inverted moustache sign, refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary edema as seen on an erect frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resembles a stag's antler...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Advantages In comparison to other techniques, cardiac MRI offers: improved soft tissue definition protocol can be tailored to likely differential diagnoses a large number of sequences are available dynamic...
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Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. Classification...
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Boyden classification of bronchi

The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy. Each lung has 10 segments, however, on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lob...
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Knuckle sign (pulmonary embolism)

The knuckle sign refers to the abrupt tapering or cutoff of a pulmonary artery secondary to a pulmonary embolus (PE). It is better visualized on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) than chest x-ray. This is an important ancillary finding in pulmonary embolism, and often associated with the Fleischne...
Article

Pickwickian syndrome

Pickwickian syndrome, or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), comprises the triad of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), daytime hypoventilation (awake hypercapnia and hypoxemia), and sleep-disordered breathing in the absence of alternative explanations (e.g. severe parenchymal lung disease, mechanical ...
Article

Resorptive (obstructive) atelectasis

Resorptive or obstructive atelectasis is a form of lung collapse that is due to obstruction of the airways supplying a lung segment or lobe. It is a term used to distinguish atelectasis identified on imaging based on the underlying pathophysiology to guide diagnosis. Clinical presentation The ...
Article

Penetrating thoracic trauma

Penetrating thoracic trauma, namely gunshot and stab injuries, vary widely in incidence globally but nevertheless result in high mortality and serious morbidity. CT is the modality of choice in imaging these patients and can reduce the need for surgical exploration.  Pathology Penetrating thor...
Article

Pulmonary plethora

Pulmonary plethora is a term used to describe the appearances of increased pulmonary perfusion on chest radiographs. It is commonly used in pediatric radiology.  Pathology Usually a left-to-right shunt of 2:1 is required for pulmonary plethora to occur 2,3. Increased pulmonary perfusion occurs...
Article

Chest x-ray review: ABCDE

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (the lungs and pleural spaces) C: circulation (cardiomediastinal contour) ...
Article

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome

The drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome typically manifests as a skin rash, fever, lymph nodal enlargement with variable internal organ involvement, and represents a hypersensitivity reaction to medication. Clinical presentation  Clinical presentation can be vari...
Article

Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma

Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumor and refers to a situation where a synovial sarcoma arises from the lung as a primary site. It together with a pleural synovial sarcoma comes under the broader category of pleuro-pulmonary synovial sarcomas 3. Epidemiology It account...
Article

AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorizing traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. Currently (early 2019), 32 different injury s...
Article

Pleural synovial sarcoma

Pleural synovial sarcoma is a rare tumor and refers to a primary synovial sarcoma arising from the pleura. It together with primary synovial sarcoma of the lung comes under the broader category of pleuro-pulmonary synovial sarcomas. Epidemiology They are thought to comprise <1% of all primary ...
Article

Tracheal web

Tracheal webs occur as a thin layer of tissue that narrows the tracheal lumen. They do not completely obstruct the trachea. Epidemiology The incidence of congenital tracheal is 1:10,000 births. Clinical presentation Some patients will be asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients can present with a ...
Article

Focal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

Focal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis refers to a manifestation of pulmonary fibrosis where changes are confined and localized to a small region of the lung, they can arise from a range of etiologies with one rather common example being osteophyte induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibro...
Article

Rheumatoid pulmonary vasculitis

Rheumatoid pulmonary vasculitis is one of the rare pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. It is usually considered to be associated with long-standing, severe, erosive, nodular, and seropositive disease 1. See also pulmonary vasculitides
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Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hemosiderosis. It is characterized by the triad of hemoptysis iron deficiency anemia diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, usually represented by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage The diagnosis is usually made by exclusion 1. Epi...
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Tissue tropism

Tissue tropism is a phenomenon by which certain host tissues preferentially support the growth and proliferation of pathogens. This concept is central to the radiological evaluation of infectious disease.  Pathology As infections that display tissue tropism will thrive in certain tissue locati...
Article

Bronchial diverticulum

Bronchial diverticula are blind-ended outpouchings arising from the bronchial tree. They are commonly pulsion diverticula acquired related to chronic cough.   Please refer to the article on tracheal diverticula for further details in the same condition involving the upper airways.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Radiation-induced rib fracture

Radiation-induced rib fractures refer to the occurrence of rib fractures following administration of radiotherapy to the region close to a rib or within a path of a rib. They are considered pathological fractures, as they happen in underlying abnormal bone affected by radiation therapy. Please n...

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