Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Bronchial hamartoma

A bronchial hamartoma (alternative plural: hamartomata) falls under the same spectrum of pathology as a pulmonary hamartoma (except for their location), but a hamartoma in a bronchial location is less common than a peripheral pulmonary location. Bronchial hamartoma accounts for only around 1.4-1...
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Asbestos-related benign pleural disease

Asbestos-related benign pleural disease forms a large part of asbestos-related lung changes. The spectrum comprises of: pleural effusions: benign asbestos-induced pleural effusions can be associated with functional impairment usually occur within 10 years of exposure but can also develop muc...
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Ossifying pulmonary metastases

Ossifying pulmonary metastases are pulmonary metastases that contain bone-forming (ossific) components. On imaging, they can be challenging to differentiate from calcifying pulmonary metastases.  Pathology They can arise from a range of primary tumors (some of which also cause calcifying pulmo...
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Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Indication This view is invariably undertaken for one of two reasons, to assess for a fracture or metastasis.  It may also rarely be perform...
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Osteophyte-induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis

Osteophyte-induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis are typically seen as focal pulmonary interstitial opacities adjacent to thoracic spinal osteophytes. They are a relatively common finding in thoracic CT imaging. Epidemiology They are more common in older individuals. Pathology ...
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Mediastinal pseudocyst

A mediastinal pseudocyst is the extension of pancreatic pseudocyst into the posterior mediastinum through esophageal or aortic hiatus or rarely through the foramen of Morgagni. It is a rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Clinical presentation It can present with symptoms due to...
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Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise from a range of etiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other patterns. As a general rule, there is litt...
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Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a global zoonotic infection secondary to any of the four Brucella spp. that infect humans. It can be focal or systemic but has a particular affinity for the musculoskeletal system.  Epidemiology Brucellosis occurs worldwide but is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean regions,...
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Common variable immunodeficiency (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency can be variable. The respiratory system is one of the most commonly affected systems in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).  Radiographic features CT The spectrum of findings seen in the chest include:  bronchiectasis with int...
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Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is th...
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Hyperimmunoglobulin IgE syndrome

Hyperimmunoglobulin E (hyper IgE) syndrome (HIES), also known as Job syndrome, consists of a heterogeneous group of complex hereditary combined B- and T-cell immune deficiency diseases characterized by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus chest infections, characteristic coarse facial appearance and ...
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is an uncommon coronavirus infection (<1000 cases) with the first case reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. It most commonly causes pneumonia and acute renal failure with a mortality rate of ~40%. MERS-CoV raises concern because of i...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
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Pneumonia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumonia refers to infection within the lung and results in infective fluid and pus filling the alveolar spaces. This initially results in patchy airspace opacification and then more confluent consolidation. Reference art...
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Asthma (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. It is defined by two main features 1: a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breat...
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COPD (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined as a condition characterized by persistent air flow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways...
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Richter transformation

Richter transformation is defined as the development of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). It has been expanded to include other lymphoid malignancies that develop in CLL patients, including Hodgkin dise...
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Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
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Atoll sign (disambiguation)

The atoll sign in radiology can refer to: reverse halo sign: atoll sign in thoracic CT atoll sign in liver MRI: suggestive of an inflammatory hepatic adenoma
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Phrenic nerve stimulation

Phrenic nerve stimulation is required when poor diaphragmatic function severely compromises respiratory function. Generators are usually placed in the chest wall and wires are tunneled either into the chest or neck, where the electrode tip is placed next to the phrenic nerve. Pacing therefore r...
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Pneumothorax (ultrasound)

Pneumothorax is a serious potential consequence of blunt thoracic trauma and, if misdiagnosed, it may quickly become life-threatening. For a discussion on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment and prognosis please see the main pneumothorax article.  Radiographic feature...
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Intrapleural space

The intrapleural or pleural space is the fluid-filled space in between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura. In normal conditions it contains only a small amount of serous pleural fluid. Variant anatomy Rarely there may be anomalous communication of the pleural spaces anteriorly.  R...
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Pericardial space

The pericardial space or cavity is the fluid-filled space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium. In normal conditions, it contains only a small amount of serous pericardial fluid, usually 15-20 mL. Related pathology Pericardial effusion is the pathological accumula...
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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term in widespread use, defined as infection within the lung. It is due to material, usually purulent, filling the alveoli. Terminology Pneumonia is in contrast to pneumonitis, which is inflammation of the pulmonary interstitium. Of note, some of the interstitial lung di...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Synchronous primary lung carcinoma

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma (SPLC) is a term given to the occurrence of two or more primary lung carcinomas within different portions of the lung in the same time period. They are thought to carry the same pathophysiological mechanism as metachronous lung carcinoma (i.e. two or more prim...
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Pulmonary serratia infection

Pulmonary serratia infection refers to pulmonary involvement by the organism Serratia marcescens which is a gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria. It can naturally occur in soil and water as well as in the intestine. It can often involve the lungs as a nosocomial (ho...
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Left lung

The left lung is one of two lungs, located in the left hemithorax on the left of the heart and mediastinum.  There are a few differences between the two lungs: The left lung is smaller in volume than the right lung, with a smaller transverse dimension (due to the heart on the left) but a large...
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Right lung

The right lung is one of two lungs, located in the right hemithorax on the right of the heart and mediastinum.  There are a few differences between the two lungs: The right lung is larger in volume than the left lung, with a larger transverse dimension (due to the heart on the left) but a shor...
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Heart chambers

There are four heart chambers, the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. These receive blood from the body and lungs and contract to transmit blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to the body for use in metabolism. It is best to list the four chambers in order of the s...
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Left upper lobe inferior lingular segment

The left upper lobe inferior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the superior lingular segment of the left upper lobe.
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Left upper lobe superior lingular segment

The left upper lobe superior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the apicoposterior and anterior segments of the left upper lobe.
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Left lower lobe anteromedial segment

The left lower lobe anteromedial segment (or cardiac segment) is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most anteromedial of the segments within the base of the left upper lobe. It is the equivalent segment merger of the anterior and medial segments of the right ...
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Right lower lobe medial segment

The right lower lobe medial or medial basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferomedial of the segments in the right lower lobe. Together with the anterior segment, it is analogous to the left lower lobe anteromedial segment.
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Right lower lobe anterior segment

The right lower lobe anterior or anterior basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferoanterior of the segments in the right lower lobe. Together with the medial segment, it is analogous to the left lower lobe anteromedial segment.
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Left lower lobe lateral segment

The left lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Right lower lobe lateral segment

The right lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the right lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Left lower lobe posterior segment

The left lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology in...
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Right lower lobe posterior segment

The right lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the right lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology...
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Left lower lobe superior segment

The left lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the left lower lobe, posterior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe. Related patho...
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Right lower lobe superior segment

The right lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right lower lobe, posteroinferior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and posterior segment of the right upper lobe. Related ...
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Right middle lobe medial segment

The right middle lobe medial segment is one of the two bronchopulmonary segments of the right middle lobe. It is the most medial of the segments in the right middle lobe which abuts the right heart border.
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Right middle lobe lateral segment

The right middle lobe lateral segment is one of the two bronchopulmonary segments of the right middle lobe. It is the most lateral of the segments in the right middle lobe.
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Lingula (lung)

The lingula is a combined term for the two lingular bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe: superior lingular segment inferior lingular segment The two lingular segments are the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below the apicoposterior and anterior segments...
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Right middle lobe

The right middle lobe (RML) or simply the middle lobe is one of three lobes in the right lung. It is separated from the right upper lobe above by the horizontal fissure and the right lower lobe below by the right oblique fissure and is subdivided into two bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatom...
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Right lower lobe

The right lower lobe (RLL) is one of three lobes in the right lung. It is separated from the right upper lobe superiorly and the middle lobe anteriorly by the right oblique fissure and is subdivided into five bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The right lower lobe...
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Left upper lobe anterior segment

The left upper lobe anterior segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It is the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below and anterior to the apicoposterior segment and above the oblique fissure.
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Right upper lobe

The right upper lobe (RUL) is one of three lobes in the right lung.  It is separated from the right lower lobe by the oblique fissure and the middle lobe by the horizontal fissure and subdivided into three bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The right upper lobe li...
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Right upper lobe anterior segment

The right upper lobe anterior segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most anterior of the segments in the right upper lobe lying below the apical segment, anterior to the posterior segment and above the horizontal fissure.
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Right upper lobe posterior segment

The right upper lobe posterior segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most posterior of the segments in the right upper lobe lying below the apical segment, posterior to the anterior segment and above the horizontal fissure. Together with the ap...
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Interstitial thickening (lung)

Interstitial thickening is pathological thickening of the pulmonary interstitium and can be divided into: interlobular septal thickening intralobular septal thickening See also interlobular septa secondary pulmonary lobules HRCT terminology
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Swiss cheese sign (lungs)

The Swiss cheese sign has been used for the appearance on CT of fluid-containing pneumatoceles, that typically occurs following pulmonary lacerations 1. They have also been described on CT appearances where there is pulmonary infection superimposed on emphysema 2. The pneumatocoeles appear as '...
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Hilar point

The hilar point on chest radiographs is formed by the outer margins of the superior pulmonary vein and the descending pulmonary artery as they cross past each other 1,2. 
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Snowman sign (disambiguation)

Snowman sign, also sometimes referred to as a figure of 8 sign or dumbell sign, is a radiologic sign related to conditions that have a shape which resembles a snowman. This include:  snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return) 1 snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma) 2,3
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Pericardial fat pads

Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
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Bronchial cut-off sign

The bronchial cut-off sign refers to the abrupt truncation of a bronchus from obstruction, which may be due to cancer, mucus plugging, trauma or foreign bodies. Typically, there is associated distal lobar collapse. 
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Thoracic myelolipoma

Thoracic myelolipomas are extremely rare entities with only ~3% of myelolipomas are thought to occur in the thorax. When they do occur in the thorax they can manifest as mediastinal myelolipoma: most occur in the posterior mediastinum intrapulmonary myelolipoma (much less common) endobronchia...
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Viral respiratory tract infection

Viral respiratory tract infection is a broad term given to pulmonary infection caused by viruses. Pathology They can be caused by any of a large number of viral agents, including but not limited to: RNA viruses orthomyxoviridae influenza pneumonia H1N1 pneumonia (swine influenza) H5N1 pne...
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Acute aspiration pneumonitis

Acute aspiration pneumonitis occurs when solid or liquid ingested particles enter the airways and lungs, leading to inflammation.  This article will focus on the acute form of aspiration (cf. chronic aspiration pneumonia), mainly concerning its radiographic features; for a broader discussion, p...
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Pulmonary scedoporium infection

Pulmonary scedoporium infection is a form of extremely rare pulmonary fungal infection. Scedosporium can present as focal localized to widespread systemic disease. Epidemiology It typically occurs in immunucompromised patients. Both acute and chronic forms have been described. Pathology This...
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Intercostal spaces

The intercostal spaces, also known as interspaces, are the space between the ribs. There are 11 spaces on each side and they are numbered according to the rib which is the superior border of the space.  Gross anatomy The intercostal spaces contain three layers of muscle: the external, internal...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
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Innermost intercostal muscles

The innermost intercostal muscles are muscles of respiration. They are the deepest intercostal muscles located in the intercostal spaces, and contract along with the internal intercostal muscles to reduce the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during expiration. Gross anatomy The inne...
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Internal intercostal muscle

The internal intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal spaces, reducing the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during expiration. Gross anatomy The internal intercostal muscles are the middle muscle of ...
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Tracheal buckling

Tracheal buckling is a normal finding in young infants when the trachea is more flexible. There is typically deviation of the trachea anteriorly and to the right (up to 90°). Normal deviation to the left is observed only when aortic arch is locate to the right of the trachea.4 Any other configur...
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Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension is one of the causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It falls under group 1.3 under the Dana point classification system of pulmonary hypertension.  Pathology A wide range of different drugs have been associated with developing pulmonary hypert...
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Capnothorax

A capnothorax, sometimes referred to as a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumothorax, has been reported as a potential complication with laparoscopic surgeries. Epidemiology It has been reported with almost all laparoscopic surgeries and is more likely to occur with high CO2 pressures and prolonged sur...
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Chronic aspiration pneumonia

Chronic aspiration pneumonia occurs when recurrent episodes of aspirated particles lead to chronic granulomatous inflammation of the airways and lungs.  This article will focus on the chronic form of aspiration (cf. acute aspiration pneumonia), for a broader discussion, please refer to the pare...
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Unfolded aorta

The term unfolded aorta refers to the widened and decreased curvature of the aortic arch on a frontal chest radiograph giving an ‘opened up’ appearance. It is one of the more common causes of apparent mediastinal widening and is seen with increasing age, usually associated with aortic calcificat...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The Kirklin sign is different from the Kirklin complex, a gastric finding on upper GI fluoroscopy. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirkli...
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Good syndrome

Good syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which a thymoma causes hypogammaglobulinemia and humoral immunodeficiency. It has been estimated to occur in 0.2%–2% of thymomas 2. thymoma low to absent B-cells T-cell mediated defects CD4 T-cell lymphopenia inverted CD4/CD8+ T-cell ratio ...
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Leukostasis

Leukostasis, also known as symptomatic hyperleukocytosis, is a medical emergency in patients with leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in the blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the over-accumulation of leukemic cells within the small vessels. Altho...
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Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung formerly known as mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). They are more likely to be multicentric and tend to have a worse prognosis than non-mucinous types.  Terminology In 2011, the Internation...
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Pneumothorax ex vacuo

Pneumothorax ex vacuo is an uncommon complication of lobar lung collapse, particularly right upper lobe collapse. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic 3.  Pathology Acute bronchial obstruction for any reason, such as bronchogenic carcinomas, mucus plugs, foreign bodies, or...
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Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. Pathology Embryologically, the intersegmental arteries regress with the no...
Article

Extrapleural fat sign

The extrapleural fat sign is an imaging feature which can be seen on CT under certain circumstances. It occurs from the inward displacement of extrapleural fat by an extrapleural fluid collection, extrapleural hematoma or extrapleural mass. The presence of the extrapleural fat sign is indicative...
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Fallen lung sign

The fallen lung sign (also known as CT fallen lung sign) describes the appearance of collapsed lung away from the mediastinum encountered with tracheobronchial injury (in particular those >2 cm away from the carina). It is helpful to look for this rare but specific sign, in cases of unexplained ...
Article

Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) of the lung, formerly known as non-mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung characterized histologically when the lepidic component comprises the majority of the lesion. Terminology The category of 'lepid p...
Article

Acinic cell carcinoma (lung)

Acinic cell carcinoma of the lung (also known as a Fechner tumor) is a type of lung carcinoma of the salivary gland type. It is extremely rare, especially when it presents in the form of primary acinic cell carcinoma. Pathology Histologically, they are comprised of clear cells with abundant gr...
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Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...
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Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Etiology...
Article

Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. For the purpose of prognostication, the stations may be grouped into seven zones.  The IASLC definitions leave so...
Article

Haystack sign (pneumomediastinum)

The haystack sign on chest radiographs in pediatric patients is indicative of pneumomediastinum. The pediatric heart is surrounded above and below with gas, giving it an appearance of a haystack from Monet's paintings. 
Article

Hemorrhagic pulmonary metastases

Hemorrhagic pulmonary metastases are those which tend to be complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage within them, resulting in characteristic imaging appearances.  Metastases of some tumor histologies are more likely to hemorrhage -- knowledge of this can help refine the differential diagnoses. Path...
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Q fever pneumonia

Q fever pneumonia refers to pulmonary infection with the organism Coxiella burnetii. It is sometimes classified as an atypical pneumonia. It can occur as either sporadic or outbreak cases. Clinical presentation The clinical picture is often dominated by fever, headaches and myalgias 5. A cough...
Article

Subclavian vein

The subclavian veins are the major veins that drain the upper limbs. Gross anatomy Origin and course The subclavian vein is the continuation of the axillary vein as it crosses the lateral border of the 1st rib. It then arches cephalad, posterior to the medial clavicle before curving caudally ...
Article

Subpleural reticulation

Subpleural reticulation is a type of reticular interstitial pattern where the changes are typically in a peripheral subpleural distribution (i.e. adjacent to costal pleural surfaces, located ≤1 cm from the pleura according to some publications 4). Pathology It can arise in a number of patholog...
Article

Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
Article

Oblique fissure

The oblique fissures (also called the major fissures or greater fissures) are bilateral structures in both lungs separating the lung lobes.  Gross anatomy Right oblique fissure The superior part of the right oblique fissure separates the right upper lobe from the right lower lobe and the infe...
Article

Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...

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