Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

997 results found
Article

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are an extremely rare renal tumor, with only six cases reported in the literature (c. 2022) 1.  Epidemiology  Renal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma represents <1% of the total reported cases of primary renal cancers. The most affected population i...
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Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
Article

Salivary duct carcinoma

Salivary duct carcinomas are a subtype of primary salivary gland tumor. Salivary duct carcinomas show high rates of metastasis and recurrence.  Epidemiology Salivary duct carcinomas represent 5-10% of salivary gland malignancies and can arise de novo or out of a pleomorphic adenoma 1,2. They t...
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Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS)

The Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) is an algorithm developed and proposed by the Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards Committee of the Society of Skeletal Radiology for the diagnostic workup of incidentally encountered solitary bone lesions in adults on MRI and/or CT 1. Class...
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CSF alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) has been reported as a tumor marker for some intracranial tumors with yolk sac elements, and teratoma 1. Interpretation Elevation intracranial yolk sac tumor intracranial embryonal carcinoma congenital CNS tumors with yolk sac ...
Article

Sea anemone sign

The sea anemone sign is a unique (but not wholly exclusive) appearance seen in ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumors (SSPBT). It refers to its surface stroma frequently branches into exophytic papillary stalks, macroscopically 1. Radiographic features On cross-sectional imaging, p...
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Tumor pseudoprogression (lung cancer)

Radiologic tumor pseudoprogression on imaging denotes an imaging appearance of tumor response where the tumor first exhibits findings suggestive of progression (i.e. growth, new lesions). However, during sustained therapy, response is eventually demonstrated 1. Epidemiology With the advent of ...
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Intraparotid nodal metastases

Intraparotid nodal metastases refer to metastatic involvement of intraparotid lymph nodes from either a primary parotid tumor or an extraparotid tumor in the head and neck (e.g. nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Pathology Location There may be a predilection towards the superficial lobe or tail regi...
Article

IOTA-ADNEX model

The ADNEX (Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa) model is a risk model developed by the IOTA (International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) group to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovary and, among them, four different subgroups (borderline, stage I cancer, stage II-IV ca...
Article

Peripheral T cell lymphoma

Peripheral T cell lymphoma is an uncommon, heterogeneous group of lymphoma. It can account for around 5-15% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Terminology The word "peripheral" does not mean involvement in the extremities but refers to tumor cells that arise from lymphoid tissue outside of the bon...
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WHO classification of skin tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn classification of skin tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for skin tumors. The most recent edition is the 4th, which was published in 2018 1.  The radiologically relevant and common entities are reflected below. Classification  1. Kera...
Article

Submandibular gland enlargement

Submandibular gland enlargement refers to an increase in the volume of the submandibular gland, exceeding "normal" values of 7.4 ± 1.8 mL 1. Pathology Causes Obstruction sialolithiasis submandibular duct stenosis (e.g. tumor, granulomatous disease) Infection acute sialadenitis: following ...
Article

Salt and pepper sign (paraganglioma)

The salt and pepper sign is used to describe a typical MRI appearance of some highly vascular tumors which contain foci of hemorrhage, typically a paraganglioma 1-3. The appearance is on T1-weighted sequences, and is made up of: punctate regions of hyperintensity = salt small flow voids = pepp...
Article

Polymorphous low grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young

Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY) is an epileptogenic tumor of children and young adults. Terminology First described in 2016 1, polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young has been recently included in the new family of "pediatric-type" low-grade ...
Article

Cachexia

Cachexia is a syndrome of metabolic dysfunction secondary to an underlying disease in which there is depleted skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) which may or may not be accompanied by an absolute loss of body fat.  Terminology Cancer cachexia is specifically used to refer to the cachexia associated ...
Article

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumors are an inflammatory process with histology showing a polymorphous infiltrate with plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as a significant reactive fibrovascular component. Pathology Location They can occur at various sites of the body including: ...
Article

Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...
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Blast crisis

A blast crisis or lymphoid blast crisis refers to the transition of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia to acute leukemia. It is usually characterized by ≥30% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral blood or development of extramedullary disease outside of the spleen Among p...
Article

Rectal MRI (an approach)

Rectal MRI is a key imaging investigation in the diagnosis, staging and follow up of rectal cancer. An increase in the utility of rectal MRI as been driven by the recognition of the mesorectum as a distinct anatomic compartment containing and limiting the margins of the rectum, and forming a sur...
Article

Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis

Pembrolizumab induced pneumonitis is a form of drug-induced lung disease occurring as a result of a response to the use of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor pembrolizumab. It may have variable pattern 2.  Pembrolizumab is also reported to have a high risk of inducing lung inju...
Article

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subtype renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Generally uncommon but thought to be the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma at the time of new classification (c. 2016) 1. Pathology This subtype is characterized by low-grade, c...
Article

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions. Differential diagnosis benign complicated hepatic cyst 2 hepatic abscess 2 chronic hepatic hematoma 3 biliary cystadenoma 3 hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2 malignant cystic/necrotic hepat...
Article

Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
Article

Hepatic small vessel neoplasm

Hepatic small vessel neoplasms (HSVN) are low-grade vascular lesions of uncertain malignant potential.  Terminology Although also referred to as hepatic small vessel hemangiomas 3, this term may wrongly mislead HSVN to represent a subtype of hepatic hemangiomas and, therefore, will be avoided ...
Article

Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit

The solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells histologically identical to solitary fibrous tumors found elsewhere Epidemiology Solitary fibrous tumors occur in a wide age range reported from 9 to 76 years without a co...
Article

Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression is the impairment of the body's immune system which can alter the ability of the body's defense mechanisms to prevent diseases, particularly certain infections, including opportunistic infections, and cancers.  Terminology Patients with immunosuppression are said to be immuno...
Article

Oncocytic sinonasal papilloma

Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas (OSP) or cylindrical cell papillomas are a rare form of Schneiderian papillomas and benign epithelial sinonasal tumors arising from the Schneiderian epithelium of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Epidemiology Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas are the least fr...
Article

Primary intraosseous carcinoma

Primary intraosseous carcinomas NOS (PIOC) are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms of the jawbones with no clear benign analog. Epidemiology Primary intraosseous carcinomas are rare tumors 1-4. They occur in a wide age range with the mean in the sixth decade of life. Men are more freque...
Article

Ameloblastic carcinoma

Ameloblastic carcinomas or malignant ameloblastoma are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with histologic features ameloblastoma. Epidemiology Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare tumors approximately accounting for 1% of jaw tumors 1,2. They have been found in a wide age range and are mor...
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Alcian blue stain

Alcian blue stain is a histological stain utilized for the identification of extracellular matrix proteoglycans, like glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid 1, commonly in connective tissue and epithelial malignant neoplasms 2, and also Barrett esophagus, where it can highlight mucosal intestina...
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Giemsa stain

Giemsa stain is a commonly used histological stain that colors the cytoplasm blue to pink (depending on its acidity) and the nucleus blue to black 1. It serves as the diagnostic gold standard of histopathological staining of blood samples from patients with plasmodium-borne malaria, and as the b...
Article

Tobacco abuse

Tobacco abuse, most commonly by smoking cigarettes, is a legal drug habit of many throughout the world. It is a significant risk factor for many malignancies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of premature mortality throughout the world. Epidemiology It has been esti...
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Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT) are benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with locally aggressive behavior. Terminology It is also known as the 'solid' or 'neoplastic form of calcifying odontogenic cyst’, since the 4th WHO classification of head and neck tumors in 20...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is an uncommon condition that often presents at an advanced stage. Imaging is more often used for staging than for the initial diagnosis. It is the commonest histological subtype of penile cancer. Epidemiology Penile cancer is a relatively infrequent ...
Article

Hairy cell leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is a rare and indolent form of small mature B-cell leukaemias. Epidemiology Its annual incidence is estimated at around 0.3 cases per 100 000, and the disease comprises 2-3% of all leukaemias. There is a recognized male predilection of around 4:1 with a median age of around...
Article

Mixed germ cell tumor of the mediastinum

Mixed germ cell tumors of the mediastinum or mediastinal mixed germ cell tumors are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum consisting of more than one type of germ cell tumor. Terminology The term ‘malignant teratoma’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mixed germ cell t...
Article

Aerogenous metastasis

Aerogenous metastases are a rare form of metastases that can occur in the lung due to aerogenous spread along the airways. Pathology Aerogenous metastases are usually from primary lung cancer disseminating along the airways from a different part of the lung and less commonly from other parts o...
Article

Mediastinal choriocarcinoma

Mediastinal choriocarcinomas or choriocarcinomas of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum consisting of trophoblastic cells. Epidemiology Pure choriocarcinomas are rare and account for up to 3% of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors 1. They usually...
Article

Mediastinal embryonal carcinoma

Mediastinal embryonal carcinomas or embryonal carcinomas of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors with embryonal type cells primarily growing in the mediastinum. Epidemiology Mediastinal embryonal carcinomas are very rare mediastinal tumors accounting for up to 8% of ...
Article

Mediastinal yolk sac tumor

Mediastinal yolk sac tumors or yolk sac tumors of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors primarily growing in the mediastinum. Terminology The term ‘endodermal sinus tumor’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mediastinal yolk sac tumors are rare mediastinal tumors. In a...
Article

Mediastinal seminoma

Mediastinal seminomas or mediastinal germinomas are primary malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Epidemiology Mediastinal seminomas are rare mediastinal tumors and account for up to one-third of primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors 1. They are almost only found in males ≥10...
Article

Neoplasm

Neoplasms, also known as tumors, are pathological masses, caused by cells abnormally proliferating and/or not appropriately dying. Neoplasms may be either benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasms are synonymous with cancers. Benign neoplasms clear origin (unless very large) slow growth  usua...
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Cystic tumor of the atrioventricular node

Cystic tumors of the atrioventricular node (CTAVN), also known as endodermal heterotopia, refer to a benign mass lesion of the atrioventricular node that constitutes a developmental endodermal rest. Terminology A term that is no longer recommended for use is ‘mesothelioma of the atrioventricul...
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Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors of the heart. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘intimal sarcoma’, ‘undifferentiated sarcoma’ and ‘undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma’ 1. Epidemiology Cardiac undifferentia...
Article

Cardiac leiomyosarcoma

Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are malignant smooth muscle tumors of the heart. Epidemiology Cardiac leiomyosarcomas are rare primary malignant tumors of the heart accounting for less than one-fifth of cardiac sarcomas. They have been found in a wide age range from 6 months to 86 years with a mean ag...
Article

Dedifferentiated chordoma

Dedifferentiated chordomas are biphasic malignant tumors composed of notochordal and high-grade sacomatous components. Epidemiology Dedifferentiated chordomas are very rare tumors that might be seen in recurrences or after radiotherapy 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on typical imaging...
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Poorly differentiated chordoma

Poorly differentiated chordomas are highly aggressive poorly differentiated notochordal tumors with a loss of SMARCB1 expression. Epidemiology Poorly differentiated chordomas are very rare tumors typically seen in children and young adults under the age of 30 years. Females are more frequently...
Article

Bone lymphoma

Lymphoma of the bone may represent lymphoma that has originated within that bone itself i.e. primary, or metastasized there from another organ/tissue, i.e. secondary. Secondary forms of bone lymphoma are much more common than the primary bone form. primary osseous lymphoma secondary osseous ly...
Article

Secondary osteosarcoma

Secondary osteosarcomas are osteosarcomas growing on abnormal bone in the setting of various underlying osseous disorders. Terminology Other acceptable terms include Paget sarcoma, osteosarcoma in Paget disease of bone or radiation-associated osteosarcoma, if applicable. The terms postirradiat...
Article

Small cell osteosarcoma

Small cell osteosarcomas (SCOS) are a rare subtype of osteosarcoma characterized by the production of small round cells. Epidemiology Small cell osteosarcomas account for approximately 1.5% of osteosarcomas. They occur mainly in young adolescents with a mild female predilection but have been f...
Article

CIC-rearranged sarcoma

CIC-rearranged sarcomas or CIC-DUX4 sarcomas are aggressive undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas with CIC-gene fusions most frequently CIC-DUX4. It is an ultra-rare high grade undifferentiated sarcoma, distinct in terms of clinical presentations and molecular characteristics 6. Epidemiolo...
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Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone

Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone are a group of genetic disorders and disease syndromes associated with neoplasms that display different features than their sporadic counterparts. These genetic syndromes have been classified separately by the World Health Organization (WHO) and co...
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Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue

Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue are a group of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors characterized by small round cell morphology. They comprise the following tumors 1: Ewing sarcoma round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions CIC-rearranged sarcoma sarco...
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Sarcoma with BCOR genetic alteration

Sarcomas with BCOR genetic alterations or BCOR sarcomas are uncommon malignant undifferentiated small round cell tumors of soft tissue and bone characterized by BCOR genetic alterations and comprise sarcomas with BCOR-related gene fusions as BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and other BCOR-rearranged sarcomas...
Article

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas are very rare locally aggressive mesenchymal bone tumors seen in children and adolescents. Epidemiology Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas are very rare tumors. They occur in children, adolescents and young adults up to the third decade 1-3. The male gender is sl...
Article

Gallbladder cancer (staging)

Staging of gallbladder cancer is often done according to the AJCC / TNM. Staging T: tumor Tis: tumor only in the epithelium (the inner layer of the gallbladder) and has not grown into deeper layers of the gallbladder T1: tumor has grown into the lamina propria or the muscle layer (muscularis...
Article

CT chest abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the trunk covering the chest,  abdomen and pelvis. It is one of the most common CT examinations conducted in routine and emergencies. It can be combined with a CT angiogram. Note: This article aims to frame a genera...
Article

CT abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the whole abdomen including the pelvis. It is one of the most common CT protocols for any clinical questions related to the abdomen and/or in routine and emergencies. It forms also an integral part of trauma and oncologic ...
Article

CT pancreas (protocol)

The CT pancreas protocol serves as an outline for a dedicated examination of the pancreas. As a separate examination, it is usually conducted as a biphasic contrast study and might be conducted as a part of other scans such as  CT abdomen-pelvis, CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. Note: This article aims...
Article

CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
Article

Myelodysplastic syndrome / myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes

Myelodysplastic syndrome / myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes refer to a group of chronic clonal myeloid malignancies in which there are features of both myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm at the time of presentation. Entities that can fall into this g...
Article

Prostate atrophy

Prostatic atrophy is characterized by reduced cytoplasm prostatic acinar cells and constitutes a benign mimic of prostate cancer not only on imaging but also histologically. Terminology The term 'proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA)' is used if it is associated with inflammation. Epidemio...
Article

Prostatic leiomyoma

Prostatic leiomyomas are benign mesenchymal tumors of the prostate. Epidemiology Prostatic leiomyomas are very rare 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis of prostatic leiomyoma is based on histology. Clinical presentation Prostatic leiomyomas can present with voiding difficulties or obstructive sym...
Article

Seminal vesicle cystadenoma

Seminal vesicle cystadenomas are a benign subgroup of mixed epithelial and stromal tumors of the seminal vesicles. Epidemiology Benign tumors of the seminal vesicles are very rare and so are cystadenomas 1. Clinical presentation Voiding difficulties or hematuria have been reported as clinica...
Article

Seminal vesicle stones

Seminal vesicle stones or calculi refer to solid mineralized pieces of material within the seminal vesicles. Epidemiology Seminal vesicle calculi are rare and have been mainly reported after the age of 40 years 1. Associations Seminal vesicle calculi are often associated with hematospermia. ...
Article

Prostatic acid phosphatase

Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) also known as prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) is an enzyme generated by prostatic glandular tissue. Usage It can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify prostatic tissue including prostatic epithelium and prostatic ducts and is usually expressed ...
Article

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate

Mucinous adenocarcinomas of the prostate or colloid adenocarcinomas of the prostate are a variant of acinar adenocarcinoma and characterized by mucinous features. Epidemiology Mucinous adenocarcinomas of the prostate are rare and account for less than 0.5% of prostate cancers 1-4. Diagnosis ...
Article

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle

Adenocarcinomas of the seminal vesicles are the most common malignant primary neoplasm of the seminal vesicles. Epidemiology Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles are very rare 1,2 and can be observed at a wide age range 2. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria The following modified diagn...
Article

Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate

Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate or prostatic adenoid basal proliferation of uncertain significance is a type of prostate cancer resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands. Terminology Other terms include 'adenoid cystic carcinoma', 'adenoid basal cell tumor', 'adenoid cyst...
Article

Squamous neoplasms of the prostate

Squamous neoplasms of the prostate include squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the prostate that account for two separate entities in the WHO classification of prostate tumors. Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinomas of the prostate are very rare and encompass <1% of prostat...
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Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate

Urothelial carcinomas or transitional cell carcinomas of the prostate are malignant neoplasms that can occur as primary cancers of the prostate gland. Epidemiology Prostatic urothelial carcinomas account for less than 2-4% of all prostate cancers 1 and are usually seen in middle-aged men 2. A...
Article

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) refers to a proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and is generally considered a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive prostate cancer. Epidemiology High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is diagnosed in core needle biops...
Article

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate

Intraductal carcinomas of the prostate (IDCP) are a new subtype of prostate cancer that has been included as a new entity in the WHO classification of prostate tumors in 2016. Epidemiology Intraductal carcinomas of the prostate are rarely found isolated on needle core biopsy samples in 0.1-0.3...
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Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate

Ductal adenocarcinomas of the prostate or prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas are malignant glandular neoplasms of the prostate and tend to be more aggressive than acinar adenocarcinomas. Terminology Due to its morphologic resemblance, it has been formerly referred to as 'endometrial' or 'endomet...
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Adenocarcinoma of the prostate with neuroendocrine differentiation

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate with neuroendocrine differentiation is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor of the prostate which only differs from acinar or ductal adenocarcinoma on immunohistochemistry staining. Diagnosis The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with neuroendocrine differe...
Article

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the prostate

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate also known as low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate or carcinoid tumors of the prostate are low-grade neuroendocrine tumors arising from the prostate that may metastasize. Epidemiology Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tum...
Article

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) of the prostate or prostatic large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are very aggressive and rare high-grade neuroendocrine tumors that are usually observed in the presence of an already existing adenocarcinoma and very rarely found alone. Epidemiology ...
Article

Right hemicolectomy

A right hemicolectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the cecum and ascending colon. Indications cancer of the appendix, cecum or ascending colon (most common) 1 inflammatory bowel disease, particularly Crohn disease complicated appendicitis cecal volvulus perforation of the right colon ...
Article

Theranostics

Theranostics (or theragnostics 6) uses a diagnostic examination to determine if a patient may benefit from a specific therapeutic drug and thus couples the therapy with diagnostic information specific for the intended target 2. Theranostics promises improved patient selection for therapy on the...
Article

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate

Small cell carcinomas of the prostate (SCCP) or small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate are neuroendocrine tumors and are characterized by aggressive behavior and a proliferation of small cells. Epidemiology Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate are rare 1,2 and mak...
Article

Prostate imaging recurrence reporting

Prostate imaging recurrence reporting (PI-RR) or prostate MRI for local recurrence reporting is a structured reporting scheme similar to the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) v2.1 on multiparametric prostate MRI for the detection of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy ...
Article

Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas

Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is a rare exocrine neoplasm that comprises ~1% of all pancreatic tumors. This tumor shows more aggressive behavior than the far more common adenocarcinoma 1,3,4. Clinical presentation High levels of serum lipase, due to hypersecretion syndrome, resulting in sub...
Article

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is a rare type of invasive cervical cancer. These are very aggressive tumors with rapid lymph nodal metastasis 1,2. Epidemiology Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix account for approximately ~2% of tumors of the cervix seen in the females of reproduct...
Article

Neoplastic pericardial disease

Neoplastic pericardial disease, neoplastic pericardial involvement or neoplastic pericarditis refers to a pericardial infiltration by tumor cells usually associated with a variably sized pericardial effusion and is a form of non-infectious pericarditis. It needs to be differentiated from other c...
Article

Ischemic fasciitis

Ischemic fasciitis refers to a reactive pseudosarcomatous fibroblastic or myofibroblastic proliferation associated with physical constraints. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘pseudosarcomatous fibromatosis’ and ‘atypical decubital fibroplasia’. Epidemiology M...
Article

Parathyromatosis

Parathyromatosis (plural: parathyromatoses) is the very rare phenomenon in which there is hyperplasia of residual foci of parathyroidal soft tissue after surgical parathyroidectomy resulting in recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Epidemiology Parathyromatosis is very rare, a study from 2012 stated ...
Article

Angiofibroma of soft tissue

Angiofibromas of soft tissue are benign fibroblastic soft tissue neoplasms permeated by a vascular network that might be found in the periarticular and articular areas of the lower extremities that have been included as a separate entity into the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020....
Article

MEN1 triad (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the classic triad of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are: PPP PiParPanc ParaPanPit Mnemonics PPP P: pituitary adenoma: prolactinoma is commonest P: pancreatic endocrine tumors P: parathyroid proliferative disease parathyroid hyperplasia (most common) pa...
Article

Atypical spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomatous tumor

Atypical spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomatous tumors or atypical spindle cell lipoma are benign adipocytic soft tissue neoplasms with a variable proportion of atypical spindle cells, pleomorphic cells adipocytes and other cells with no risk for dedifferentiation but a low risk of local recurrence...
Article

Intramuscular angioma

Intramuscular angiomas or intramuscular hemangiomas are benign vascular soft tissue tumors consisting of benign vascular channels within the skeletal muscle. Terminology The term 'intramuscular-infiltrating angiolipoma' is now discouraged. Epidemiology Intramuscular angiomas are uncommon and...
Article

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumor

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors, also known as rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue or malignant rhabdoid tumors are highly malignant neoplasms of uncertain differentiation mainly seen in infants and children. Epidemiology Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors are very rare and most are found in infants and childre...
Article

Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor

Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumors or haemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesions are locally aggressive soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation. Epidemiology Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumors are rare with an estimated incidence of less than 0.2% of all benign lipomatous...
Article

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors (PHAT) of soft parts are locally recurring non-metastasizing neoplasms of intermediate biologic potential and are classified as soft tissue tumors of uncertain lineage. Epidemiology Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors of soft parts a very rare ...

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