Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,053 results found
Article

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...
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Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix

Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of cervical cancer. It falls under the group of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Radiographic features MRI As a general rule any mucin-producing tumor will produce very high T2 signal 1. An enhancing lesion, irregular margin, ...
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Pituitary lymphoma

Pituitary lymphoma is very rare, although lymphomatous (or leukemic) infiltration of the perisellar dura is not infrequently encountered as part of more widespread CNS disease. This article concerns itself with involvement of the pituitary itself rather than the region more broadly. For a genera...
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Pituitary metastasis

Pituitary metastases are rare, and unless a systemic metastatic disease is already apparent, are often preoperatively misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas.  This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pituitary gland. For other intracranial metastatic locations, please refer t...
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Skull metastases

Metastases to the skull are very common in patients with disseminated skeletal metastatic disease, although they are often asymptomatic. For a more detailed general discussion please refer to the article on skeletal metastatic disease. Epidemiology Skull metastases are seen in ~20% (range 15-2...
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Sézary syndrome

Sézary syndrome (SS) is a type of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.  Clinical presentation It is clinically characterized by an extensive erythematous rash covering most of the body as well as the presence of malignant lymphocytes in the blood. History and etymology It is named after Albert...
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Trachelectomy

Trachelectomy, also known as a cervicectomy, refers to surgical resection of the uterine cervix. It may be considered as a fertility-sparing treatment for low-stage cervical cancer. Although radical hysterectomy is routine for treatment of endometrial and more advanced cervical cancer, uterine-...
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the proliferation of mostly mature but abnormal leukocytes.  Epidemiology Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North ...
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Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE) or hepatic radioembolization, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumors. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via t...
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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is relatively uncommon, accounting for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies. Most cases are squamous cell carcinoma on histology. Epidemiology It accounts for less than 2% of large bowel malignancies and 1-6% of anorectal tumors (~1.5% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid pituitary lesions with enhancement are by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the or...
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Musculoskeletal fibromatoses

Musculoskeletal fibromatoses represent a wide spectrum of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic neoplasms with similar pathologic appearances and variable clinical behavior.  Pathology They are benign fibrous tissue proliferations characterized by infiltrative growth and a tendency for local recurr...
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Aggressive fibromatosis

Aggressive fibromatosis is a type of musculoskeletal fibromatosis. While it is a non-metastasizing fibrous lesion, it is thought to be a true neoplasm that arises from the fascial and musculoaponeurotic coverings, sometimes at the site of a traumatic or post-surgical scar. Terminology The term...
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Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a type of malignant cutaneous primary T-cell lymphoma.  Epidemiology In the United States, it is more common in males and African Americans. In Europe, it accounts for ~6% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is rare in Asian countries. Clinical presentation It is usual...
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Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic hemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic hemangiom...
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MRI protocols

MRI protocols are a combination of various MRI sequences, designed to optimally assess a particular region of the body and/or pathological process. There are some general principles of protocol design for each area. However, the specifics of a protocol are dependent on MRI hardware and software...
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Malignant liver tumors (pediatric)

Pediatric malignant liver tumors are rare, some of which occur only in children but that are similar to those that occur in adults. Epidemiology Malignant liver tumors account for ~1% of pediatric malignancies 2. Pathology Broadly, any malignant liver mass can be defined as a metastasis or p...
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Pituitary microadenoma

Pituitary microadenomas are a minority of all pituitary adenomas but can pose imaging and management challenges on account of their size and protean clinical presentations.  By definition, a microadenoma is less than 10 mm in size. If the same tumor is greater than 10 mm in size, it is then con...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumor thrombus. Clinical features A patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal edema Bu...
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Blow out bone metastases

Blow out bone metastases or expansile bone metastases are typically only encountered in a relatively small number of primary malignancies, including 1: renal cell carcinoma thyroid cancer hepatocellular carcinoma pheochromocytoma melanoma gastric carcinoma Occasionally the sclerotic metas...
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Lytic bone metastases

Lytic bone (osteolytic) metastases are distant tumor deposits of a primary tumor within bone characterized by a loss of bone with the destruction of the bone matrix. Epidemiology Lytic bone metastases are more common than sclerotic bone metastases. Diagnosis The diagnosis is usually establis...
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Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone (osteolytic and osteoblastic) metastases refer to metastatic bone disease with both sclerotic and lytic bone metastases or bone metastases with both components. Diagnosis The diagnosis is established by proof of sclerotic and lytic bone metastases of one primary ...
Article

Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually a part component of multi-systemic lymphoma. Primary renal lymphoma, which is defined as lymphoma involving the kidney exclusively without any manifestation of extra-renal lymphatic disease 3-5. Typical imaging findings are multiple bilateral hypodense or infiltrative r...
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Bone metastases

Bone (skeletal) metastases are the third most frequent behind lung and liver metastases 6. They result in significant morbidity in patients with metastatic disease. Although the diagnosis is often straightforward, especially as in many cases there is a well-documented history of metastatic malig...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions 1. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to b...
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Secondary malignant cardiac tumor

Secondary malignant cardiac tumors or cardiac metastases refer to a secondary malignant tumor involving any structural component of the heart. It represents spread of a primary neoplasm via lymphatic, hematogenous, or endovascular pathways, or potentially by direct extension from an adjacent tis...
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Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predom...
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Pilomyxoid astrocytoma

Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are an uncommon and somewhat more aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with unique clinical and histopathologic characteristics. Epidemiology Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are usually encountered in young children and infants (mean age of 10-18 months), however, adults...
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Well-defined breast cancers (differential)

Certain well-defined breast cancers tend to lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include: certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculatio...
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Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a variety of benign, as well as malignant, causes. Benign mastitis other regional infective causes tuberculosis ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis silicone i...
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Asymmetry (mammography)

Asymmetries in mammography represent a spectrum of morphological descriptors for a unilateral fibroglandular-density finding seen on one or more mammographic projections that do not meet criteria for a mass. The term refers to a density finding and should not be confused with asymmetry in breast...
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Ductal adenoma of the breast

A ductal adenoma of the breast is a benign glandular tumor of the breast that usually fills and distends the ductal lumen. Epidemiology They may occur in women of all ages, although the majority of patients are 60 years of age or greater 3. Clinical presentation Ductal adenomas usually prese...
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Thymic hyperplasia

Thymic hyperplasia is a disorder whereby there is hyperplasia of the thymus. Pathology Thymic hyperplasia can be subdivided into two forms:  true thymic hyperplasia lymphoid thymic hyperplasia Both true thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia manifest as diffuse symmetric enlargement of...
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Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap

Transplantation of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a commonly used surgical procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. An autologous myocutaneous flap consisting of abdominal skin, subcutaneous fat, the rectus abdominis muscle, and adjoining vasculature ...
Article

Fetal cardiac tumors

Fetal cardiac tumors refer to primary cardiac tumors that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumors are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumor types that present ...
Article

Breast architectural distortion

Breast architectural distortion is a descriptive term in breast imaging (mammography, ultrasound, and MRI) to indicate that the breast parenchyma is tethered or indented. The finding per se is not a mass. Pathology Architectural distortion is often due to a desmoplastic reaction in which there...
Article

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT), also known as ovarian androblastomas, are a subtype of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor. Epidemiology They are rare and only account for ~0.5% of all ovarian tumors. While they can present at any age, they typically present <30 years old, with a mean ag...
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Breast sarcoma

Breast sarcoma refers to a relatively heterogenous group of rare breast tumors which can include: angiosarcoma of the breast pleomorphic sarcoma of the breast fibrosarcoma of the breast myxofibrosarcoma of the breast leiomyosarcoma of the breast primary osteosarcoma of the breast Epidemi...
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Bartholin gland tumors

Bartholin gland tumors represent neoplasms of the Bartholin glands. They include: squamous cell carcinoma of the Bartholin gland: tends to be the most common histological subtype adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin gland adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin gland
Article

Primary osteosarcoma (breast)

Primary osteosarcoma of the breast, a.k.a. extraskeletal osteosarcoma of breast, is an uncommon breast malignancy and is a subtype of extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Epidemiology While it can present in a wide are group, the peak age at presentation is around the 6th decade 7. Pathology  The pre...
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Residual breast cancer

A residual breast cancer is a remaining portion of the original primary breast cancer after an incomplete resection or following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The term is particularly used in assessing patients who have had neo-adjuvant chemo +/- radiotherapy.
Article

Triple receptor negative breast cancer

Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by a relative absence of immunohistochemical staining for the following hormone receptors/protein: estrogen receptor (OR) progesterone receptor (PR) human ep...
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Technique of masking

Masking is very important when viewing mammograms, especially with high-density breasts. It helps the adaptation of the eye to the luminance of the mammograms on the view box. The technique of masking allows the comparative study of small areas of both breasts and is a feature of motorised view...
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Fibrosarcoma of the breast

Fibrosarcoma of the breast is a type of malignant stromal sarcoma that rarely occurs as a primary tumor within the breast.  Pathology A fibrosarcoma is composed of immature mesenchymal elements surrounded by a collagenous substance. It is a type of breast sarcoma with a predominant “herringbon...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 4

A BI-RADS 4 lesion under the breast imaging-reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BI-RADS 4 lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
Article

Fibromatosis of the breast

Fibromatosis of the breast, also known as an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor of the breast or mammary fibromatosis 4, is considered a rare breast tumor. It is a non-metastasizing benign but locally invasive stromal tumor 4. However, it can mimic more sinister types of breast cancer on both imaging...
Article

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. The diagnosis is mainly pathological as it is difficult to differentiate from other forms of breast cancer on imaging. Epidemiology It accounts for about 4% of all cases. It is seen most often in females in the age group of 5...
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Metachronous breast cancer

Metachronous breast cancers are two breast cancers that occur in either breast in two different time periods. Treatment and prognosis The survival rate of women with metachronous breast cancers diagnosed within two years of the original primary is worse than those with unilateral disease 4.
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterized by intellectual disability, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical...
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-speci...
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Granular cell tumor of the breast

Granular cell tumors of the breast are uncommon, usually benign tumors that are possibly of neural origin. Epidemiology They tend to occur at a younger age than other types of breast cancer 4. The age range of presentation, however, can be very variable although they occur more commonly in pre...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare subtype of breast cancer. Epidemiology They account for only 0.1-0.4% of all breast cancers. Pathology The tumor demonstrates a strikingly characteristic microscopic pattern similar to that of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gla...
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Cancer

Cancer (malignancy is synonymous) refers to neoplasms with malignant potential, i.e. for local invasion and metastasis. This article is a list of different cancers or relevant tumor classification systems, although noting that not all tumors are cancerous. For a list of cancer staging systems, s...
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Synchronous breast cancer

Synchronous breast cancers are two (or more) primary breast cancers that occur in either breast at the same time.  Epidemiology Up to 10% of all breast cancers may be synchronous (particularly found with the use of breast MRI). The occurrence of bilaterality is greatest with invasive lobular c...
Article

Breast abscess

A breast abscess is a relatively rare but significant complication of mastitis that may occur during breastfeeding, particularly in primiparous women. The clinical context is a key to diagnosis as imaging appearances (particularly ultrasound) can mimic many other entities such as breast carcinom...
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Lobular breast carcinoma

Lobular breast carcinoma is a subtype of breast cancer can range from lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive lobular carcinoma. Pathology Multicentricity and bilaterality tend to be quite common with lobular breast carcinomas.
Article

Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumor staging (T) Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of sube...
Article

Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant

Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant tumors are WHO CNS grade 2, 3 or 4 tumors of the brain found in adults. They are diffuse infiltrating astrocytic tumors where there is no identifiable border between the tumor and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear relatively well-marginated on imagin...
Article

Periosteal osteosarcoma

Periosteal osteosarcoma is a form of surface osteosarcoma.  Epidemiology It is the second most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma after parosteal osteosarcoma and accounts for 1.5% of all osteosarcoma cases. It affects a slightly older age group (10-20 years) cf. conventional...
Article

Male breast disease

Male breast disease includes a wide spectrum of conditions. Many conditions and entities that affect the female breast may also affect the male breast.  Pathology Malignant male breast cancer lymphoma dermatofibrosarcoma Benign gynecomastia pseudogynecomastia: fat deposition within the b...
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Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumors and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumors. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of present...
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Pulmonary opacification

Pulmonary opacification represents the result of a decrease in the ratio of gas to soft tissue (blood, lung parenchyma and stroma) in the lung. When reviewing an area of increased attenuation (opacification) on a chest radiograph or CT it is vital to determine where the opacification is. The pat...
Article

Vaginal cancer (staging)

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers all histological subtypes and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumor confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic side w...
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Vulval cancer (staging)

Staging of vulval cancer can be done with either the AJCC or FIGO systems, although both are similar.  Staging FIGO stage I:tumor confined to the vulva IA lesions ≤2 cm in size, confined to the vulva or perineum and with stromal invasion ≤1.0 mm*, no nodal metastasis IB: lesions N2 cm in si...
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CA-125

CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Müllerian and celomic epithelial-derived cell types and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section belo...
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Ovarian collision tumor

Ovarian collision tumors are an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumors in an ovary with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian ter...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Choroid plexus carcinoma

Choroid plexus carcinomas are malignant neoplasms arising from the choroid plexus. They are classified as a WHO grade 3 tumor and while there is considerable overlap in imaging characteristics they carry a significantly poorer prognosis than both WHO grade 2 atypical choroid plexus papilloma, an...
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Angiosarcoma of breast

Breast angiosarcomas are a rare vascular breast malignancy. Epidemiology As primary tumors of the breast, they account for ~0.04% 2 of all breast cancers and tend to occur in younger women, in their 3rd to 4th decades. Secondary angiosarcoma, related to prior therapy of breast cancer, has an ...
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly, although erroneously, referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy. It is the third most common GI malignancy following colon and pancreatic carcinoma.  Epidemiology ...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastasis is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
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Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumors. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behavior. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovaria...
Article

Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to the involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without the involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well-recognized condition. Epidemiology Primary ovarian lymphoma accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumors 5. Pathology The rarity of this...
Article

Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography ...
Article

Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus flavus. They are acutely toxic and carcinogenic. Acute exposure High-level aflatoxin exposure can result in acute aflatoxicosis with acute hepatic necrosis, leading to cirrhosis, and ...
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Anterior mediastinal mass in the exam

Getting a film with an anterior mediastinal mass in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: CXR There is a left sided mediastinal mass that makes obtuse angles with the mediastinal c...
Article

CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural, or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient procedure where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed...
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Nephroblastomatosis

Nephroblastomatosis refers to diffuse or multifocal involvement of the kidneys with nephrogenic rests (persistent metanephric blastema). Epidemiology Nephrogenic rests are found incidentally in 1% of infants. Pathology Nephrogenic rests are foci of metanephric blastema that persist beyond 36...
Article

Desmoid tumor

Desmoid tumors are benign, non-inflammatory fibroblastic tumors with a tendency for local invasion and recurrence but without metastasis. They are sometimes considered a locally aggressive proliferative disease within the family of soft-tissue sarcomas 11.  Terminology The terms desmoid tumor ...
Article

Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix. It is the third most common gynecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with an average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papillomavirus (HPV) 1...
Article

Paget disease (breast)

Paget disease of the breast, which is also known as Paget disease of the nipple, has traditionally been described as a form of breast malignancy characterized by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by malignant cells. Although most cases have underlying focus or foci of in situ or invasive carc...
Article

Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer 4. stage I:  tumor limited to the ovaries stage Ia:  ​tumor limited to one ovary capsule i...
Article

Myo-inositol peak

Myo-inositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myo-inositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and phosphatidylinos...
Article

Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast

Invasive lobular carcinoma is the most common special type of invasive breast cancer after invasive breast carcinoma of no special type (invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified). Epidemiology They represent 5-10% of all breast cancer. Associations There is a greater rate of contral...
Article

Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumors of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumors. As ovarian thecomas secrete estrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumors. Epidemiology They typically present in older...
Article

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
Article

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions carry a relatively broad differential, which includes: retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muci...
Article

Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumor. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-g...
Article

WHO classification of uterine tumors

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the uterine corpus is a commonly used classification system for uterine tumors. It is part of the 5th edition WHO classification of female genital tumors, published in 2020 1.  Classification Endometrial epithelial tumors and prec...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynecological malignancy. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding. Both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy, with peak i...
Article

Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterized by the presence of a benign tumor like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non-...
Article

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a low-grade malignant tumor arising from dermal and subcutaneous tissues and is the most common cutaneous sarcoma (although overall still quite rare). It is most commonly found at the trunk and proximal extremities 6. Its behavior is notable for a high ...
Article

Carcinosarcoma of the uterus

Carcinosarcomas of the uterus, previously known as malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (MMMT) of the uterus, are the most common (up to 50%) type of uterine sarcoma. They are thought to account for 2-8% of all malignant uterine cancers 1,2. The uterus is the most common site for carcinosarcomas of ...

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