Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,344 results found
Article

Protracted bacterial bronchitis

Protracted bacterial bronchitis is one of the most common causes of cough in children, particularly those aged <6 years. Is it characterized by a chronic wet cough with no associated cause and tends to respond to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Epidemiology Protracted bacterial bronchitis is th...
Article

Normal imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging divided by body region and system. brain head and neck spine chest breast gastrointestinal genitourinary hepatobiliary upper limb lower limb pediatrics
Article

Pediatric foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique foot view for pediatrics is one of three views performed to examine the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones of the foot. Indications This projection is useful in diagnosing fractures; particularly 5th metatarsal fractures, soft tissue effusions, joint space abnormalities...
Article

Flat-top talus

Flat-top talus is considered a complication of non-operative treatment of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) but can also be seen in surgically treated and non-treated patients and the etiology is not clear 1,2. It results in reduced ankle dorsiflexion due to anterior ankle impingement fr...
Article

Pediatric foot (DP view)

The dorsoplantar foot view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones of the foot.  Indications This projection demonstrates the foot joint in its natural anatomical position. It is useful in diagnosing fractures, soft tissue effusions,...
Article

Subtalar arthroereisis

Subtalar arthroereisis is a non-fusion surgical treatment of pediatric symptomatic flexible flatfoot (pes planus). The procedure involves the insertion of an implant into the subtalar joint to correct excessive hindfoot eversion. Procedure There are two techniques for subtalar arthroereisis 1:...
Article

Donohue syndrome

Donohue syndrome, also known as leprechaunism, is a rare autosomal recessive form of insulin resistance syndrome with a distinctive phenotype including elfin facies and severe disturbances of glucose homeostasis. It is universally fatal in early childhood. Epidemiology Donohue syndrome is very...
Article

Foot series (pediatric)

The foot series for pediatrics consists of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique and a lateral projection. Depending on the child's age and the departmental protocol, the medial oblique view may or may not be performed. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dislocation foreign b...
Article

Elfin facies

Elfin facies refers to a characteristic facial appearance seen in certain rare congenital syndromes. Terminology Elfin facies is sometimes used synonymously with Williams syndrome and the latter is occasionally called elfin facies syndrome. However elfin facies is seen with other rare genetic ...
Article

Ulnar bow sign

The ulnar bow sign is a radiographic indication of a plastic deformity of the ulna, its assessment is quite useful in the case of a suspected "isolated" radial head dislocation in the pediatric population 1,3. "Isolated" dislocation of the radial head is almost always in fact associated with a ...
Article

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome refers to the concomitant occurrence of dyspnea and hypoxemia, respectively, which are precipitated by assuming an upright position and alleviated by assuming a recumbent position 4. Clinical presentation As the name of the syndrome suggests, the hallmark clinic...
Article

Overriding aorta

Overriding aortas are congenital heart defects in which the aorta is situated directly superior to a ventricular septal defect (VSD) rather than the normal position (i.e. left ventricle). As a result, the amount of oxygenated blood received by the aorta for distribution to the body is reduced. I...
Article

Lower limb radiography (pediatric)

Lower limb radiography involves plain film imaging of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle bones in pediatric patients. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of distraction and immobilizat...
Article

Pediatric scaphoid (axial view)

The scaphoid axial view in pediatrics examines the scaphoid bone in its true anatomical position. Since minimizing radiation dose is essential in pediatric imaging, one posteroanterior angled view of the scaphoid is usually sufficient. The scaphoid bone begins ossification at age 5 years and com...
Article

Pediatric clavicle (AP cephalic view)

The cephalad angulation clavicle view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the entirety of the clavicle and the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. This view is ideally performed erect, but supine may be necessary depending on the patient's level of distress and sever...
Article

Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
Article

Pediatric clavicle (AP view)

The anteroposterior clavicle view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the entirety of the clavicle and the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. This view is ideally performed erect, but supine may be necessary depending on the patient's level of distress and severity ...
Article

Effman Classification of urethral duplication

The Effman classification is a widely adopted system to classify the several distinct types of urethral duplication. It's considered to be the most complete classification from a clinical and functional point of view, but it's only based on male forms and does not distinguish sagittal from coron...
Article

Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
Article

Scaphoid abdomen

Scaphoid abdomen is the term given to an inward concavity of the anterior abdominal wall. It is used both for the clinical appearance and its radiological equivalent.  In children it maybe a sign of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In both adult and pediatric patients, it raises the possibility...
Article

Clavicle series (pediatrics)

The clavicle series for pediatrics is a two view series containing an anteroposterior and a cranially angled axial radiograph. Depending on the patient's level of distress and severity of the injury, adapting the radiographic technique to suit a child sitting in bed or lying supine may be necess...
Article

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a rare disorder with a broad spectrum of congenital anomalies. It is caused by an abnormality in the ZFHX1B gene. Anomalies that may be recognized at birth or 1st year of life include: CNS seizures intellectual disability distinct facial profile  genitourinary abnor...
Article

Dragonfly sign

Dragonfly sign describes the appearance of the cerebellum on coronal images, which is seen secondary to cerebellar atrophy in pontocerebellar hypoplasia 1. The sign is so called as the whole cerebellum resembles the shape of a dragonfly if one imagines the vermis is the body of the insect and t...
Article

Prognathism

Prognathism or mandibular prognathism refers to a type of morphological jaw positional anomaly in which the lower jaw protrudes ahead of the upper jaw. This results in an extended chin and dental malocclusion. It can be associated with certain conditions such as acromegaly syphilis - late cong...
Article

Pica

Pica refers to a psychiatric disorder in which patients report a craving for and compulsive consumption of substances that are not food. Substances consumed include earth, clay, plaster, paint chips, string, hair, animal feces and stones 1.  Epidemiology Although the condition can present in a...
Article

CSF alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) has been reported as a tumor marker for some intracranial tumors with yolk sac elements, and teratoma 1. Interpretation Elevation intracranial yolk sac tumor intracranial embryonal carcinoma congenital CNS tumors with yolk sac ...
Article

Pediatric shoulder (lateral view)

The lateral shoulder view in pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the shoulder joint, clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus.  Indications This projection is an orthogonal view of the AP shoulder and is useful in pediatric imaging for identifying potential fractures or dislocation...
Article

Center edge angle of Wiberg

The center-edge angle (CEA) of Wiberg is a measurement in the pelvis which is the angle formed by Perkin line and a line from the center of the femoral head to the lateral edge of the acetabulum. It can be used to assess for conditions such as developmental dysplasia of the hip although only con...
Article

Suspected physical abuse - head injuries

Suspected physical abuse, also known as non-accidental injury (NAI), can result in a range of head injuries. Pathology Infants have a relatively large head size as compared to their body mass, weak neck muscles, large subarachnoid space, relatively flat skull base and pliable, thin skull. The ...
Article

Congenital pouch colon

Congenital pouch colons are an anomaly in which there is cystic dilation of a shortened colon. They can either partially or totally replace the colon. Pathology Associations Congenital pouch colons can be associated with vaginal or vestibular fistulas and less frequently with other genitourin...
Article

Subhepatic appendicitis

Subhepatic appendicitis refers to inflammation of the appendix in which the appendix and cecum have failed to descend inferiorly during normal development; resulting in a "subhepatic" position. Epidemiology Presentation of an inflamed subhepatic appendix is exceedingly uncommon, representing o...
Article

Pediatric shoulder (AP view)

The anteroposterior shoulder view in pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the shoulder joint, clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus.  Indications This projection demonstrates the shoulder joint in natural anatomical position and is used as an orthogonal view to the lateral should...
Article

Medulloepithelioma of the brain

Medulloepitheliomas of the brain are rare, highly malignant, primitive embryonic tumors derived from the primitive medullary plate and neural tube. These tumors, once considered distinct entities, are now thought to be a pattern of embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes. Please refer to tha...
Article

Furuncle

A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...
Article

Thalamo-occipital distance

The thalamo-occipital distance is a marker of ventricular size in infants. It is defined as the distance between the most posterior surface of the thalamus at its junction with the choroid plexus and the outermost point of the occipital horn in the parasagittal plane 1. See also ventricular in...
Article

Anterior horn width

The anterior horn width is a marker of ventricular dilatation. It is predominantly used in prenatal and neonatal imaging to determine ventriculomegaly. Measurement The anterior horn width is the diagonal width of the anterior horn at its widest point in the coronal plane 1. In neonates, this i...
Article

Lead pipe fracture

The term lead pipe fracture is the term for a radiographic appearance given to a simultaneous greenstick fracture of one side of the bone (usually metaphysis) with a buckle fracture of the opposing cortex of the same bone.  There are differing opinions in texts as to whether this term should be...
Article

Acute leukoencephalopathy with restricted diffusion

Acute leukoencephalopathy with restricted diffusion (ALERD) is a clinicoradiological spectrum of disease with clinical features of leukoencephalopathy and associated imaging findings where diffusion restriction is the dominant finding. Radiographic features The dominant radiological feature is...
Article

Doughnut sign (missed testicular torsion)

The doughnut sign, also known as the bull's-eye, halo or ring sign, is the name of a distinctive appearance of a missed testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.  In a missed torsion (i.e. established testicular infarction), there is a reactive hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral dartos muscle ...
Article

Subependymal cyst

Subependymal cysts may either be postnatally acquired post-hemorrhagic cysts or may be congenital (germinolytic). The congenital cysts may result from infection, ischemic injury, or hemorrhage. Epidemiology Subependymal cysts are most frequently seen in preterm infants, likely related to their...
Article

Intussusception (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intussusception occurs when a loop of bowel is pulled into the lumen of a distal bowel loop, and is an important cause of acute abdominal pain, particularly in young children. Reference article This is a summary article; ...
Article

Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome

Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by macrostomia, wide mouth and microblepharon. Clinical presentation A few of the clinical features of this syndrome are: syndactyly zygomatic hypoplasia  delayed speech  microtia hypoplastic nipples excessive ...
Article

Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...
Article

Dent disease

Dent disease is a very rare inherited renal disorder that is characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. Clinical presentation polyuria hypercalciuria, renal stones and nephrocalcinosis proteinuria, although not presenting with nephrotic syndrome glucosuria aminoaciduria phosphaturia c...
Article

Parkes weber syndrome

Parkes Weber syndrome is a rare disease, depicted by capillary malformation, venous malformation, arteriovenous malformation and lymphatic malformation in the affected limb, hypertrophy of the bone, as well as soft tissues of the involved limb.  Multiple AV malformation of the affected limb will...
Article

Shoulder series (pediatric)

The shoulder series for pediatrics is a two view series containing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Depending on the patient's level of distress and severity of the injury, adapting the radiographic technique to suit a child sitting in bed or lying supine may be necessary.  Indications ...
Article

Precipitous labor

Precipitous labor, also known as precipitous birth, is labor that happens too quickly, and is formally defined as fetal expulsion three hours or less after the start of regular uterine contractions. Contradictory and somewhat limited data demonstrates a higher risk of pregnancy-related complicat...
Article

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia

Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia refers to abnormal bone development that may be present in patients undergoing iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Deferoxamine is often used in patients with β thalassemia major for the prevention and treatment of transfusion-related secondary hemochrom...
Article

Parastremmatic dysplasia

Parastremmatic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by shortening of the trunk, joint contractures, limb deformities, a short stiff neck, malformation of the pelvis, kyphosis of thoracic spine and urinary incontinence. Pathology Parastremmatic dysplasia belongs to a gro...
Article

Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
Article

Mitrofanoff procedure

The Mitrofanoff procedure, also known as appendicovesicostomy, is a surgical procedure where a conduit is created using the appendix to form a connection between the urinary bladder and skin surface. Intermittent catheterization is performed through the surgically constructed conduit, thus provi...
Article

Omodysplasia

Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1: frontal bossing depressed nasal bridge anteverted nares low-set ears long philtrum rhizomelia short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri elbow dislocation radio-ulnar diastasis flared metaphyses shor...
Article

Pediatric thumb (AP/PA view)

The anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) view of the thumb in pediatrics is part of a two view series and is orthogonal to the lateral view. Often the decision to choose between the AP or PA thumb depends on what the child can manage and how agitated they are. An AP thumb is ideal as the...
Article

Pediatric humerus (lateral view)

The lateral humerus view for pediatrics is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus orthogonal to the AP view, allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the enti...
Article

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a spectrum of developmental disorders that result from an insult to the developing brain in utero or early life. Characteristically, muscle tone and movement are affected but there is wide variation in the degree to which each individual is affected 1. Epidemiology The incide...
Article

Anterior vertebral body tether (AVBT)

Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT) is a fusionless technique for treating and managing idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature patients to reduce the typical side effects of rigid posterior fusion (such as loss of spinal motion and risks adjacent segment degeneration later in life) 1,3...
Article

Pediatric thumb (oblique view)

The oblique thumb view in pediatrics is an additional projection for thumb imaging. Typically, this view is not performed unless specified by the referring doctor or radiologist.  Indications For pediatrics, this oblique view is only indicated when specifically requested. This view may help to...
Article

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure is a surgical technique that was initially developed to treat thoracic insufficiency syndrome and then it was used in congenital scoliosis with rib abnormalities, and has since been successfully used to treat early-onset scoliosis wit...
Article

Pediatric appendicitis score

The Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in the pediatric population 1. Criteria cough/percussion/hopping tenderness in right lower quadrant (+2) anorexia (+1) fever (+1) nausea or emesis (+1) tenderness in rig...
Article

Pediatric humerus (AP view)

The anteroposterior humerus view for pediatrics is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examina...
Article

Humerus series (pediatric)

The humerus series for pediatrics is a set of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. As the elbow joint is also imaged in this series, being familiar with the order of elbow ossification is important in assessing the e...
Article

Anectasis

Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis. Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth. See also atelectasis
Article

Posterior instrumentation and fusion (scoliosis)

Posterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical technique to improve spinal curvature in scoliosis patients. Procedure The vertebral column is manipulated into the desired position and held in place with metalwork namely pedicle screws and/or hooks transfixed with rods with or without in si...
Article

Congenital scoliosis

Congenital scoliosis refers to scoliosis resulting from a congenital abnormality of the vertebra, e.g. a segmentation or fusion defect.  Terminology There are several definitions of congenital scoliosis. Some authors include neurological congenital causes. In this article, our focus will only ...
Article

Neuromuscular scoliosis

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a term that can be used to describe scoliosis that is caused by underlying brain, spine or muscular conditions. While the underlying conditions can be a very broad group of disparate conditions, they tend to result in similar spinal curves. Radiographic features Neur...
Article

Immune thrombocytopenia

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), historically known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a decrease in platelet numbers to <100 x 109/L. In most cases it is a primary condition, i.e. no underlying cause is found. Terminology Historically, immune thro...
Article

Pediatric thumb (lateral view)

The lateral thumb view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal and proximal phalanges.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing fractures and localizing foreign bodies in pediatric patients. It also presents as an orthogonal view of the ...
Article

Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator

The Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients.  Due to the non-categorical data of some variables within the criteria, an integrated calculator is required to use this tool. Criteria 1,2 ...
Article

Idiopathic scoliosis

Idiopathic scoliosis describes scoliosis that has no clinically or radiologically identifiable underlying cause. It is the dominant type of scoliosis with ~80% of all scolioses being idiopathic. Pathology Idiopathic scoliosis can be classified by age into: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (>11...
Article

Pediatric finger (oblique view)

The oblique finger view for pediatrics is an additional view examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest.  Indications To minimize radiation dose, only the PA and lateral finger views are typically performed for pediatrics. However, the obli...
Article

Dentomaxillofacial Radiology

Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (DMFR) is the official journal of the International Association of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (IADMFR) and is published by the British Institute of Radiology (BIR); it was first published in 1972. Its primary focus is head and neck imaging and oral radiology. Its ...
Article

Iris sign

The iris sign is the imaging appearance of deep medullary venous thrombosis/congestion-related white matter injury in neonates created by fan-shaped, outwards radiating hemorrhages or cytotoxic edema in the subcortical and periventricular cerebral white matter. The appearance resembles the flowe...
Article

Focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood

Focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood, also known as transient cerebral arteriopathy, is characteristically an acute monophasic disease, with unilateral stenosis of the distal internal carotid artery and/or the proximal middle/ anterior cerebral arteries, causing infarction in the lenticulost...
Article

P sign

The alphabet P sign, or just P sign, is a sonographic finding in acute epiglottitis. Using point of care ultrasound (POCUS), on a longitudinal view at the level of the thyrohyoid membrane, a P-shaped hypoechogenicity is apparent. The curved portion of the P is formed from the edematous epiglotti...
Article

Fuhrmann syndrome

Fuhrmann syndrome is a rare non-lethal genetic limb malformation syndrome characterized by 1,2: hypoplasia of pelvis bowing of femur bone polydactyly hypoplastic fibula symmetrical fingernail deficiency 4 tooth anomalies 5 malformed thumbs 8 It is a syndrome in which there is a partial l...
Article

Odontoid process agenesis

Odontoid process agenesis is rare, occuring due to a lack of failure of ossification of the odontoid process. It is seen in patients with spondyloepiphyseal and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia 1,2. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain film, odontoid process agenesis appears small, as...
Article

Kasai portoenterostomy

Kasai portoenterostomy is the surgery that comprises exposing the porta hepatis by radical excision of all bile duct tissue up to the liver capsule and attaching a Roux-en-Y loop of jejunum to the uncovered liver capsule above the bifurcation of the portal vein creating a portoenterostomy 1. In...
Article

Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients

Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are much less common than in adults but raise greater concern due to higher rates of malignancy.  Epidemiology Thyroid nodules are much less common in children, with an estimated prevalence of around 1-2% 4, compared with adults but have higher rates of ma...
Article

Megalocornea

Megalocornea is a rare bilateral congenital ocular defect characterized by a corneal diameter of more than 13 mm with the deep anterior chamber and normal intraocular pressure 1-3. Epidemiology Megalcornea is associated with Chordin-like 1 (CHRDL1) gene mutation 1,2. It is associated with mult...
Article

Mercedes Benz craniosynostosis syndrome

Mercedes Benz pattern craniosynostosis also known as pure bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS) is a pattern of craniosynostosis 1,2.   Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 0.3 - 0.7 % 3. Clinical presentation Cognitive function is grossly normal. Dolichocephalic hea...
Article

Connective tissue disease

The connective tissue diseases or disorders (CTDs), also known as collagen vascular diseases, form a large heterogeneous group of conditions that are linked by a disease process that primarily involves the connective soft tissues of the body and often the vasculature too, due to shared structura...
Article

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is an emerging pediatric disease occurring after prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and is therefore strongly associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.  Terminology The World Health Organiz...
Article

Wassel classification for radial polydactyly

The Wassel classification system is used to classify pre-axial polydactyly, also called radial polydactyly. The classification system is based on the level of duplication from distal to proximal. I: bifid distal phalanx II: duplicated distal phalanx III: bifid proximal phalanx IV: duplicate...
Article

Pediatric finger (lateral view)

The lateral finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest. The patient position can vary depending on which finger is being imaged.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing f...
Article

Catel-Manzke syndrome

Catel-Manzke syndrome is a digitopalatal syndrome initially described in 1961. Inheritance pattern is unknown. Radiographic findings include micronagthia and accessory ossicles at the bases of the metacarpals.
Article

Orbital lymphangioma

Orbital lymphangiomas, also known as orbital venous lymphatic malformations, are congenital benign orbital vascular malformations composed of variable venous and lymphatic components. Epidemiology Orbital lymphangiomas are common in children. Clinical presentation orbital swelling and propto...
Article

Pseudoachondroplasia

Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) refers to a type of osteochondrodysplasia. Clinical presentation It is characterized by: rhizomelic dwarfism limb and vertebral deformities joint laxity early onset osteoarthrosis Furthermore, typically there is an absence of abnormality and a normal craniofac...
Article

Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma

Calcifying aponeurotic fibromas, also known as juvenile aponeurotic fibromas or just aponeurotic fibromas are superficial benign potentially recurrent fibroblastic soft tissue tumors usually seen in the palms and soles of children and adolescents 1,2. Epidemiology Calcifying aponeurotic fibro...
Article

Inclusion body fibromatosis

Inclusion body fibromatosis is a superficial benign myofibroblastic tumor characterized by eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusions. These tumors are also known under the terms infantile digital fibroma or fibromatosis, recurring digital fibroma of childhood, recurring digital fibrous tumor of...
Article

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, also known as hyaline fibromatosis syndrome or infantile systemic hyalinosis is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome outlined by painful, abnormal, often deforming deposits of hyalinized fibrous material in the extracellular matrix of the skin, subcutaneous soft tis...
Article

Lipofibromatosis

Lipofibromatosis refers to a rare unspecified/borderline slow-growing soft tissue tumor prone to recurrence, which is often found in the hands and feet of children. Terminology Infantile or juvenile fibromatosis variant is an alternative term, which has been used but is now discouraged 1. Ep...
Article

Gardner fibroma

Gardner fibromas or Gardner associated fibromas are benign fibrous plaque-like soft tissue masses formed by a haphazard arrangement of collagen fibers usually associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Terminology The term 'desmoid precursor lesion' is now discouraged 1. Epidemiology Ga...
Article

Infantile fibrosarcoma

Infantile fibrosarcomas also known as congenital fibrosarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma-like tumor, and cellular congenital mesoblastic nephroma are locally aggressive rarely metastasizing fibroblastic tumors found in the pediatric population. Epidemiology Infantile fibrosarcomas are most common...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.