Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,331 results found
Article

Acromial apophysiolysis

Acromial apohysiolysis is a finding on shoulder MRI that may be encountered in patients with an unfused acromial apophysis. It is associated with athletes in throwing sports. Clinical presentation Presents with superior shoulder tenderness in a patient <25 years old, often in a young throwing ...
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Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by severe osteoporosis and blindness. This disease is frequently mistaken for osteogenesis imperfecta.  Epidemiology This disease is encountered in approximately 1 in 2 million births.  Pathology T...
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Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen lacks a normal opening. Epidemiology It happens in 0.1% of the female population, usually an isolated finding.  Clinical presentation Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. An imperforate hymen c...
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Gonadoblastoma

Gonadoblastomas are uncommon sex cord / stromal tumors. They are associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders"). Epidemiology The vast majority are found <30 years of age. Most are discovered in the perinatal period. May occur in phenotypic males or ...
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Kabuki syndrome

Kabuki syndrome (Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare polydysplasia that is thought to be more common in Japan. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1:32.000 in Japan. It is sporadically seen elsewhere in the world. The reason for the disparity in incidence is controversial. Clinical present...
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Yunis-Varón syndrome

Yunis Varón syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia. It is thought to be autosomal recessive. Radiographic features severe neurologic impairment include small cerebellar vermis and dandy walker malformation cleidocranial dysplasia absent clavicles macrocrania diastasis of sutures micrognath...
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Transient synovitis of the hip

Transient synovitis of the hip refers to a self-limiting acute inflammatory condition affecting the synovial lining of the hip. It is considered one of the most common causes of hip pain and limping in young children. Over 90% of hip joint effusions in children tend to be due to transient synovi...
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Costal cartilage injury

Costal cartilage injuries occur in the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. They most commonly manifest as edema and fractures with the latter being the focus of this article.  Epidemiology There is little published data (c. 2021) on costal cartilage fractures. Most reporte...
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Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome, also referred as familial juvenile polyposis, is one of the polyposis syndromes and consists of hundreds of juvenile polyps. Epidemiology Presentation in the second decade is most common 2. Clinical presentation Rectal bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussuscept...
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Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterized by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting for 1-...
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Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, also known as pituitary stalk transection syndrome, is a syndrome characterized by an absent or hypoplastic anterior pituitary gland, thin or absent infundibulum, and ectopic posterior pituitary location. Epidemiology Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome...
Article

Orthoroentgenogram

Orthoroentgenogram is a radiographic study used to evaluate anatomic leg length and calculate leg-length discrepancies. This study utilizes a long ruler placed on the film, and three radiographs including bilateral hips, knees and ankles. Similar studies used to evaluate true leg length include...
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Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned cecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can inc...
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CLOVES syndrome

CLOVES syndrome is an acronym denoting a rare condition consisting of: Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth Vascular malformations Epidermal nevi Skeletal/Scoliosis/Spinal anomalies Terminology Although first described as CLOVE the term "CLOVES" syndrome, with the "S" emphasizing the skeletal ...
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Vascular rings and slings

Vascular rings and slings refer to the congenital vascular encirclement of the esophagus and/or trachea by anomalous/aberrant vessels.  Epidemiology Vascular rings are rare, occurring in <1% of patients 1. No gender or ethnic predispositions have been identified 3.  Clinical presentation Man...
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Senning repair

The Senning repair is one of two "atrial switch" procedures used to functionally correct transposition of the great arteries (the other being the Mustard repair).  The two repairs share a similar fundamental principle. Systemic blood flow is redirected away from the right ventricle and toward t...
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Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a subtype of pulmonary atresia that presents as cyanotic congenital heart disease.  Pathology PA-IVS is the combination of obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from pulmonary valve atresia without a ventricular septal defe...
Article

Lipoblastomatosis

Lipoblastomatosis is an uncommon presentation of a benign fatty neoplasm. The condition is more common in infants and young children. It differs from a lipoblastoma in that it is extensive and infiltrative.  Pathology Lipoblastomatosis consists of immature adipose tissue surrounding myxomatous...
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Arterial switch procedure

The arterial switch procedure, also known as the Jatene switch procedure, is an intervention designed to correct D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) at the level of the aorta and main pulmonary artery. It is generally preferred over atrial switch procedures for simple D-TGA due to impr...
Article

Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
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Prenatal onset infantile cortical hyperostosis

Prenatal onset infantile cortical hyperostosis is a rare variant of infantile cortical hyperostosis, however, it is a more severe and lethal form and newborns die early postnatally. Pathology Both sporadic and autosomal recessive inheritance have been suggested. A missense mutation in the gene...
Article

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, previously known as adrenogenital syndrome, is a group of seven autosomal recessive disorders relating to an enzyme deficiency affecting adrenal steroidogenesis. Epidemiology The incidence is highly variable depending on the enzyme deficiency ranging from 1 in 2...
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Hypovitaminosis A

Hypovitaminosis A results from inadequate intake of vitamin A, fat malabsorption, or liver disorders and produces a variety of epithelial alterations. Epidemiology The World Health Organizatiοn currently estimates that 45-122 countries have a vitamin A deficiency of public health significance ...
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Hypervitaminosis A

Hypervitaminosis A results from an excess of vitamin A. It usually manifests in children, and one recognized cause is administration from 13-cis retinoic acid for treatment of cancers such as neuroblastoma. Clinical presentation Manifestations can differ depending on whether it is an acute or ...
Article

Ingested foreign bodies in children

Ingested foreign bodies in children are common as the world is a curious place to young children, who will put anything and everything into their mouth, and will often inadvertently swallow.  The usual practice is for plain films of the chest and/or abdomen to identify a foreign body. Epidemio...
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Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Pericardial teratoma

Pericardial teratomas are type of primary pericardial tumor. They are usually diagnosed in infants and neonates. As with all teratomas, they are comprised of contain endodermal, mesodermal and neuroectodermal germinal layers. While they are usually benign tumors, they may be life-threatening du...
Article

Sphenoid wing dysplasia

Sphenoid wing dysplasia is a characteristic but not pathognomonic feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), it can also occur in isolated cases. Epidemiology Sphenoid wing dysplasia is seen in 5-10% of cases of NF1 and is one of the diagnostic criteria of NF1 5,6. Pathology Its exact etiolo...
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Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip

Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip are relatively common among physically active adolescents and young adults. Epidemiology Pelvic and hip apophyseal injuries typically occur in the 14 to 25 year age range. Mechanism Kicking sports, such as soccer, and gymnastics are frequen...
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Double outlet left ventricle

Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly where both the aorta and pulmonary trunk arise from the anatomical left ventricle. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly and is often associated with a ventricular septal defect with normal continuity...
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Bucket handle appearance (disambiguation)

Bucket handle appearance is used in imaging to refer to several different entities: bucket handle fracture - non-accidental injury bucket handle fracture of the pelvis bucket handle meniscal tear bucket handle mesenteric injury
Article

Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia epilepsy syndrome

Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia epilepsy syndrome (HHE) is a clinical syndrome of infancy or early childhood that is associated with seizures, cerebral hemiatrophy and transient or permanent epilepsy. It refers to the characteristic holohemispheric global atrophy of one hemisphere, that is independen...
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Congenital radial head dislocation

Congenital radial head dislocation is the most common congenital elbow abnormality. It can occur in isolation, or more commonly may be associated with other conditions or syndromes. Epidemiology Overall, congenital radial head dislocation is rare 2. Clinical presentation Congenital radial he...
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Scham sign (hip)

The Scham sign of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is one of the subtle signs that may be seen on the AP view of an adolescent hip radiograph with early slip. In the normal adolescent hip, an intra-articular portion of the diaphysis of the collum overlies the posterior wall of the acetabulum i...
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Metaphyseal blanch sign

The metaphyseal blanch sign (or metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel) is one of the signs seen on AP views of the adolescent hip indicating posterior displacement of the capital epiphysis. It is a crescent-shaped area of increased density, that overlies the metaphysis adjacent to the physis on the ...
Article

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) refers to a rare, fatal congenital abnormality of the lungs characterized by grossly dilated lymphatic channels in the sub pleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial areas 3. It is divided into two main types 1: cardiac-associated lymphangiectasia (seco...
Article

Asplenia

Asplenia refers to absence of the spleen thereby leading to deficient splenic function. Epidemiology Seen in 3% of neonates with structural heart disease and in 30% of patients who die from cardiac malposition. The male-to-female ratio is 2:1. Pathology Asplenia can be classified into two  t...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
Article

Leaky lung syndrome

Leaky lung syndrome refers to a form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pathology Pulmonary edema due to increased capillary permeability.   Radiographic features Leaky lung syndrome is considered a mild form of a part of the spectrum of acute lung injury with ARDS at the other end of the s...
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Lines and tubes: neonatal (chest radiograph)

Neonatal lines and tubes are widely used in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) in the management of critically ill neonates. Examples include: nasogastric (NG) tube endotracheal (ET) tube central venous line umbilical artery catheter umbilical vein catheter Nasogastric tube The NG tu...
Article

Neonatal pneumonia

Neonatal pneumonia refers to inflammatory changes of the respiratory system caused by neonatal infection. Epidemiology It is one of the leading causes of significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Neonatal pneumonia accounts for 10% of global child mortality. At the time of w...
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Cerebral hypoventilation syndrome

Cerebral hypoventilation syndrome refers to a congenital condition characterized by hypoventilation during sleep with no other abnormalities of the cardiorespiratory system. There is a decrease in the depth of breathing. It is also known as central sleep apnea, congenital central hypoventilatio...
Article

Birth defects linked to antithyroid drug treatment in pregnancy

Birth defects linked to antithyroid drug treatment in pregnancy have for a long time been known to exist. A recent Danish register-based cohort study has assessed the degree of association of antithyroid drugs (ATD), such as methimazole (MMI) / carbimazole (CMZ) and propylthiouracil (PTU), and t...
Article

Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
Article

Fetal circulation

Fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation due to the presence of certain vessels and shunts.  These shunts close after birth, and most of the fetal vessels are visible as remnants in the adult circulation. The function of these shunts is to direct oxygen-rich venous blood to the syst...
Article

Terminal zones of myelination

The terminal zones of myelination are located at the posterior aspect of the lateral ventricles (the peritrigonal regions) and are the only part of the cerebral white matter that may exhibit high T2 signal in a normal brain at 2 years of age, when myelination of cerebral white matter normally be...
Article

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a non-malignant but often fatal disorder of immune dysregulation affecting multiple organs. It is also known as macrophage activation syndrome when occurring in the setting of a rheumatologic disorder. Epidemiology It typically affects infants and yo...
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Pediatric elbow radiograph (an approach)

Pediatric elbow radiographs are commonly encountered in the emergency department and, when approached in a systematic fashion, are not as difficult to interpret as most people think! Systematic review Ossification Check that the ossification centers are present and in the correct position. Th...
Article

Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from abnormal metabolism of phenylalanine. If untreated, patients can develop central nervous system impairment.  Epidemiology PKU is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 10,000. It is more commo...
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Niemann-Pick disease type C

Niemann-Pick disease type c (NPD-C or just NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder classed under Niemann-Pick disease on account of clinical similarities, namely hepatosplenomegaly and variable involvement of the central nervous system.  Epidemiology NPD-C is inherited as an ...
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Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is actually a collection of a number of distinct autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases. They are divided into two groups of two based on the underlying metabolic deficiency: deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase 1,3,4 Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A) sever...
Article

Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why immediate recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Cl...
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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common chronic arthritic disease of childhood and corresponds to a group of different subtypes. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~13 per 100,000 per annum 3. By definition, symptoms must start ...
Article

N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak

N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the more important compounds assessed on MR spectroscopy, and resonates at 2.0 ppm chemical shift (its concentration in healthy adults is 8-10 mM) 1. The synthesis of NAA, adenosine diphosphate-dependent, occurs in the neuronal mitochondria 2. NAA is the acetyl...
Article

Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is also referred to as the figure of 8 sign. It is an abnormality of the fetal circulat...
Article

Brachydactyly type A1 (Farabee type)

Brachydactyly type A1, also known as  Farabee type brachydactyly, is a subtype of brachydactyly.   Clinical presentation The anomaly is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of the second to fifth digits in hands and feet and proximal phalanges of the thumbs and great toes...
Article

Pediatric mediastinal masses

Pediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal ma...
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Esophageal duplication cyst

Esophageal duplication cysts are a type of congenital foregut duplication cyst. Epidemiology Less common compared to other foregut duplication cysts. There may be an increased male predilection 5. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic but may complain of dysphagia due to ...
Article

Fibular hemimelia

Fibular hemimelia is a congenital lower limb anomaly characterized by partial or complete absence of the fibula and includes a spectrum ranging from mild fibular hypoplasia to complete fibular aplasia 1. Epidemiology Although rare in occurrence, it is the most common congenital absence of long...
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Ulnar hemimelia

Ulnar hemimelia is a rare congenital upper limb anomaly characterized by complete or partial absence of the ulna bone. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1/100,000-150,000 live births, with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Associations Ulnar hemimelia may be associated with other skeletal ...
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Ulnar dimelia

Ulnar dimelia or mirror hand syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb characterized by absence of the radial ray (including thumb), duplication of the ulna and duplication of the ulnar halves of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 1. Pathology Embryology The embryology of mi...
Article

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral illness that manifests as vesicular eruptions on the hands and feet as well as painful ulcers of the oral mucosa. Symptoms usually resolve spontaneously in 7-10 days. In most cases, there is a prodrome of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and malaise. ...
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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
Article

Medial pneumothorax

Medial pneumothorax refers to the abnormal collection of air on medial aspect of the pleural cavity. This occurs when the quantity of air is small. Radiographic features Chest radiograph (supine) Seen as a linear lucent area along the medial aspect of lung at the interface of the pleural surf...
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Acrania anencephaly sequence

Acrania anencephaly sequence or acrania–exencephaly–anencephaly sequence is the progression from a relatively normal-appearing exposed brain due to an absent cranium (acrania) to an amorphous brain mass (exencephaly) to no recognisable brain tissue (anencephaly) 1. Epidemiology The acrania ane...
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Voiding cystourethrography

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), also known as a micturating cystourethrography (MCU),  is a fluoroscopic study of the lower urinary tract in which contrast is introduced into the bladder via a catheter. The purpose of the examination is to assess the bladder, urethra, postoperative anatomy an...
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Necrotizing pneumonia

Necrotizing pneumonia refers to pneumonia characterized by the development of the necrosis within infected lung tissue. Terminology While the term has sometimes been used synonymously with cavitating pneumonia in some publications 1, not all necrotizing pulmonary infections may be complicated ...
Article

Medial stripe sign

The medial stripe sign refers to an area of increased lucency at the interface of the medial lung and the mediastinum on a chest radiograph in a case of medial pneumothorax. A small pneumothorax generally accumulates anteriorly or medially which may be difficult to detect, hence this sign holds ...
Article

Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life-threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
Article

Pulmonary sequestration (extralobar)

Extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration, the other type being intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS). Epidemiology It is usually encountered in infants, most being diagnosed before six months. It is more common in males (M:F 4:1). Pathology Extralob...
Article

Evaluation of endotracheal tube position

Endotracheal tubes (ETT) are wide-bore plastic tubes that are inserted into the trachea to allow artificial ventilation. Tubes come in a variety of sizes and have a balloon at the tip to ensure that gastric contents are not aspirated into the lungs. Adult tubes are usually approximately 1 cm in ...
Article

Ping pong skull fracture

Ping pong skull fracture or pond skull fracture refers to a depressed skull fracture of the infant skull caused by inner buckling of the calvarium. It is seen in newborns because of the soft and resilient nature of their bones (like greenstick fractures of long bones) and the fracture line is no...
Article

Focal periphyseal edema zone

Focal periphyseal edema zones, also known as FOPE zones, are regions of bone marrow edema seen on MRI that are principally located at the physes about the knee. They are thought to represent potentially painful manifestations of physiologic physeal fusion 1. Epidemiology FOPE zones are seen in...
Article

Hydronephrosis grading (SFU system)

The grading system of hydronephrosis developed by the Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) was devised to assess the degree of hydronephrosis. This particular system is thought to be the most common in use and was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant pelvicalyectasis: grade 0 no dilat...
Article

Osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow

Elbow involvement in osteochondritis dissecans is rare. It is defined as a localized fragmentation of bone overlying the capitellum cartilage. For a general discussion of osteochondritis dissecans refer to the parent article - osteochondritis dissecans. Epidemiology Most commonly seen in young...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumor arising from embryonic white fat. Epidemiology It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3 years). Clinical presentation May present as a rapidly enlarging mass 4. It most often occurs in the extremities an...
Article

Acute idiopathic scrotal edema

Acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE) is a self-limiting condition characterized by marked edema of the skin and dartos fascia without involvement of the deeper layers, testes, or epididymis. It is an important condition to recognize in order to avoid unnecessary surgical exploration. Epidemiol...
Article

Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration)...
Article

Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia

Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) is a rare congenital malformation of the brainstem and hindbrain with imaging hallmark of an ectopic dorsal transverse pontine fiber projecting from the tegmentum into the fourth ventricle.  Epidemiology PTCD is a rare congenital malformation with just ov...
Article

Asplenia syndrome

Asplenia syndrome, also known as right isomerism or Ivemark syndrome, is a type of heterotaxy syndrome. Epidemiology There is an increased male predilection. Asplenia syndrome is usually diagnosed in neonates 4. Associations severe/complex congenital heart disease (50%), especially cyanotic ...
Article

Gymnast wrist

Gymnast wrist is a term that is used to describe a variety of chronic overuse injuries of the wrist in gymnasts with an immature skeleton. Gymnast wrist comprises a combination of osseous and ligamentous injuries and usually manifests as a chronic Salter-Harris type I fracture of the distal radi...
Article

Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputation is the absence of a fetal limb or part of a limb that usually occurs due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology They are slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than ...
Article

Bowing fracture

Bowing fractures are incomplete fractures of tubular long bones in pediatric patients (especially the radius and ulna) that often require no intervention and heal with remodeling. Epidemiology Bowing fractures are almost exclusively found in children. However, there have been several case repo...
Article

Metaphyseal corner fracture

Metaphyseal corner fractures, also known as classical metaphyseal lesions (CML) or bucket handle fractures, are observed in young children, less than 2 years old. It is suggestive of non-accidental injury (NAI).  Epidemiology This injury is not only the fracture most specific for NAI, it is al...
Article

Erb palsy

Erb palsy, also known as brachial plexus birth palsy, is a form of obstetric brachial plexus injury as a result of complications during delivery.  Clinical presentation The most common cause is due to excessive lateral traction or stretching of the fetal head and neck in opposite directions du...
Article

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of community-acquired pneumonia caused by the organism Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is usually grouped under atypical pneumonia. Epidemiology It is relatively common in the pediatric population where it is considered the most common community-acquired pneumonia in 5...
Article

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (also known as metaphyseal dysplasia or dysostosis) is a type of skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Classification Schmid type - mild type, due to mutation in type X collagen (COL10A1 gene), metaphyses are cupped resembling rickets Pena and Vaandrager type - intermedi...
Article

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy, also referred as acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood, is a rare type of encephalopathy characterized by multiple bilateral brain lesions, mainly involving the thalami, but also the putamina, internal and external capsules, cerebellar white matter, and ...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiograph of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1.  Indications Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the ...

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