Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

662 results found
Article

Holstein-Lewis fracture

Holstein-Lewis fractures represent a special type of humeral shaft fracture. It is a simple spiral fracture of the distal humerus with a radial displacement of the distal fragment 1,3,4. These fractures are reported to have a higher rate of radial nerve palsy when compared to other humeral shaft...
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Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures

The Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures is a classification system used when assessing intertrochanteric fractures. The Tronzo classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Due to its simplicity, the Tronzo classification has become the preferr...
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Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures

The Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures, also known as the Herbert and Fisher classification, is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing scaphoid fractures. The Herbert classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Cl...
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Subperiosteal hematoma

A subperiosteal hematoma occurs between the periosteum and the cortex of a bone and is therefore geographically limited to the affected bone. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation varies with location. Subperiosteal hematomas have been described in the calvarium, iliac bone, humerus, fem...
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Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
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V sign of interphalangeal joint dislocation

The V sign is characterized on a lateral radiograph of the digit by the separation of the dorsal base of the dislocated phalanx and the head of the phalanx proximal to the incongruent joint 1,2. Before reduction, the V sign might be assessed to identify more subtle dorsal subluxations 1. If th...
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Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures

The Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures is a commonly used classification system when assessing thumb metacarpal fractures. However, since most types of fractures coincide with famous eponymous fractures, the system itself isn't usually used properly, giving preferenc...
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Clival fracture

Clival fractures are uncommon skull base fractures resulting from high-energy cranial trauma and are usually associated with other skull vault fractures and brain injuries. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on basilar fractures of the skull. Epidemiology Most fractures of ...
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Mayo classification of olecranon fractures

The Mayo classification of olecranon fractures is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing olecranon fractures. The Mayo classification can be used to aid in treatment choice. Mayo type II and III fractures usually require operative treatment. Classification The M...
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Falling injuries

Falling injuries are the second most common cause of accidental or unintentional deaths in the world. Falling trauma is the most common mechanism of injury in persons 21 years old or younger 1,2. Clinical presentation Many factors influence the presentation of a fall-from-height victim, such a...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
Article

Suspected physical abuse - head injuries

Suspected physical abuse, also known as non-accidental injury (NAI), can result in a range of head injuries. Pathology Infants have a relatively large head size as compared to their body mass, weak neck muscles, large subarachnoid space, relatively flat skull base and pliable, thin skull. The ...
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Cruciate ligament tears (knee)

The cruciate ligaments of the knee commonly tear: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear the ACL is the most commonly torn knee ligament 1 posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear tears of the PCL are less common and usually less significant 2
Article

Ilizarov apparatus

The Ilizarov apparatus (aka Ilizarov frame) is an external metallic orthopedic fixation device used to length or reshape limbs from congenital deformity or following injury. The procedure was pioneered by the Polish surgeon Gavrill Abramovich Ilizarov.  
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Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
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Nunley-Vertullo classification

The Nunley-Vertullo classification is one of several classification systems used for the categorization of Lisfranc injuries. It is based on clinical, x-ray and bone scan findings and also associates the stages with management options or recommendations regarding those injuries 1-3. Usage The ...
Article

Anterior to posterior fibular gap

The anterior to posterior fibular gap illustrates the displacement of the proximal and distal fibular fragments in trans-syndesmotic lateral malleolar fractures on the lateral view of the ankle and might indicate a medial injury. Usage The anterior to posterior fibular gap can be used in the s...
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Bow-tie sign

"Bow-tie sign" refers to the appearance of rotated facets in unilateral facet joint dislocation. Facet joint displacement coupled with a rotational deformity gives a bow-like like appearance on a lateral view radiograph of spine 1.
Article

Landells classification of atlas fractures

The Landells (and van Peteghem) classification of fractures of the atlas is one of the commonly used systems to describe C1 vertebral injuries. Classification Fractures are classified by their involvement of the C1 anterior arch, posterior arch, and/or lateral mass 1: type I: confined to eith...
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Lead pipe fracture

The term lead pipe fracture is the term for a radiographic appearance given to a simultaneous greenstick fracture of one side of the bone (usually metaphysis) with a buckle fracture of the opposing cortex of the same bone.  There are differing opinions in texts as to whether this term should be...
Article

Posterior ligamentous complex injury

Posterior ligamentous complex injury refers to tears/ruptures of the spinal posterior ligamentous complex, which consists of the ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligaments, supraspinous ligament, and facet joint capsules. Posterior ligamentous complex disruption is a central part of the currently...
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Pincer/split fracture

Pincer or split fractures are coronally oriented vertebral body fractures that involve the superior and inferior vertebral body endplates but do not involve the anterior or posterior cortices.  Clinical Presentation Pincer fractures may present in the setting of trauma, with an axial loading m...
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
Article

Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
Article

Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury

A perivascular adductor longus muscle injury is an infrequent type of trauma to the adductor longus muscle, which is poorly and infrequently reported in the literature 1-3, and may as a result remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pathology The adductor longus muscle originates from the exte...
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AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal femoral fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal femoral fractures or proximal femoral end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: trochant...
Article

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures

Radius and ulnar shaft fractures, if treated inadequately, can result in significant dysfunction of the upper limb. This is due to the important role that the forearm plays in positioning of the hand through pronation and supination (at the proximal and distal radioulnar joint) as well as throug...
Article

Tibial shaft fracture

Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1.  Pathology Mechanism  Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
Article

Distal radioulnar joint instability

Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability refers to excessive painful mobility in the distal radioulnar joint usually as a result of a previous traumatic injury or bony malunion. Epidemiology Distal radioulnar joint instability is common but often misdiagnosed 1. Associations Distal radioul...
Article

Craniocervical fixation

Craniocervical fixation, instrumentation or occipitocervical fusion refer to surgical fixation techniques with the goal to stabilize the craniocervical junction. History and etymology An occipitocervical fusion with fibular only bone graft was already described by Forrester in 1927 1,2. Severa...
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Atlantoaxial fixation

Atlantoaxial fixation refers to various surgical techniques to stabilize the atlantoaxial complex. History and etymology The first effort of an atlantoaxial stabilization was made by Mixter and Osgood in 1910 by fixation of the spinous processes with a heavy silk thread 1,2.  Posterior cervic...
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Odontoid process fixation

Odontoid process fixation or odontoid process repair refers to the surgical fixation of an odontoid fracture. Anterior odontoid screw fixation is performed with single and double screw techniques, non-cannulated and cannulated screws, and uni- or bicortical fixation techniques. Odontoid plate ...
Article

Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
Article

Anterior calcaneal process fractures

Anterior calcaneal process fractures are often missed fractures of the calcaneus (up to 88% are not reported on radiographic examination of the ankle) 1 leading to non-union of bone fragments, unrecognised associated ligamentous injuries, and persistent ankle or foot pain. Epidemiology Anterio...
Article

Rule of Spence

The Rule of Spence is a radiologic method to evaluate the likelihood of injury to the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) on an open mouth AP (“peg”) radiograph. As originally framed, if the combined projection of the lateral masses of the atlas is more than 6.9 mm beyond the lateral masses of th...
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Trauma

The term trauma (plural: traumas) or traumatic injury refers to damage or harm of sudden onset caused by external factors or forces requiring medical attention. Polytrauma or multiple trauma has been defined as a pattern of potentially life-threatening injuries involving at least two body regio...
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NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury

The NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) is a scheme for structured contextual reporting of CT head examinations of suspected head injuries. The NIRIS was proposed 1 in 2018 by a multi-institute group of neuroradiologists based at Stanford University. Its unique objective is ...
Article

CT elbow (protocol)

The CT elbow protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the elbow and is usually performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries.  Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a ...
Article

CT hand and wrist (protocol)

The CT hand and wrist protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the wrist and is often performed as a non-contrast study and less often as a contrast-enhanced study. A CT wrist can be also conducted as a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of ligamentous injuries and the triangul...
Article

CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
Article

CT neck (protocol)

The CT neck protocol serves as a radiological examination of the head and neck. This protocol is usually performed as a contrast study and might be acquired separately or combined with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. On rare occasions, it will be performed as a non-contrast study. Dependi...
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CT thoracic spine (protocol)

The CT thoracic spine or T-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the thoracic spine. As a separate examination, it is often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis as part of a trauma or...
Article

CT lumbar spine (protocol)

The CT lumbar spine or L-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the lumbar spine. As a separate examination, it is most often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT abdomen. It also forms a part of a polytrauma CT or mi...
Article

CT cervical spine (protocol)

The CT cervical spine or C-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the cervical spine. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT angiography of the cerebral arteries or a CT of the neck....
Article

CT shoulder (protocol)

The CT shoulder protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the shoulder joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can be combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of labral injuries or the rotator cuff if MRI is contraindicated or in a postoperative setting whe...
Article

CT hip (protocol)

The CT hip protocol serves as an examination for the evaluation of the hip joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. However, it can be combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and/or labral tears or a femoral neck version scan. Note: This article aims to frame a...
Article

CT knee (protocol)

The CT knee protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the knee the femoral condyles or the tibial plateau and the proximal tibiofibular joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can also be combined with a CT arthrogram in cases of suspected internal derangement...
Article

CT ankle (protocol)

The CT ankle protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the ankle and rearfoot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries or can encompass the whole foot in certa...
Article

AO/OTA classification of proximal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal tibial fractures or proximal tibial end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraartic...
Article

Discoligamentous injury

Discoligamentous injuries are severe spinal injuries in which the intervertebral disc and the intervertebral ligamentous structures are involved. They include cervical, thoracic or lumbar anterior tension band injuries as well as translational injuries. Terminology The term transdiscal fractur...
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Segmental endplate angles in spine injuries

Segmental endplate or segmental kyphosis angles include the monosegmental and bisegmental endplate angle as well as the vertebral compression angle and play a role in the stability assessment after spinal injuries. The following angles might be used 1-3: monosegmental endplate angle or Gardner...
Article

Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation

Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocations (PTJD) are a form of proximal tibiofibular joint injury involving a separation of the fibular head from the respective articular surface of the lateral tibial condyle. Epidemiology Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocations are rare and account for less t...
Article

Lateral atlantodental instability

Lateral atlantoaxial instability is a subtype of atlantoaxial subluxation, and is a poorly understood entity that may be encountered in post-traumatic and rheumatic patients with equal frequency to established sagittal plane atlantoaxial subluxation 1.  There is limited information regarding cl...
Article

O'Driscoll classification of coronoid process fractures

The O'Driscoll classification system of coronoid process fractures distinguishes three types of coronoid process fractures of the ulna, and this classification system is useful when assessing further treatment options 1-4. type I: transverse coronoid tip fractures, which affect one-third of the...
Article

Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Anderson and Montesano classification is a widely used system for describing occipital condyle fractures. It divides injuries into three types based on morphology and mechanism of injury 1-5. Classification type I: impacted type occipital condyle fracture morphology: comminution of the co...
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V sign (disambiguation)

Signs inspired by the letter V have been described in several different pathologies: inverted V sign (pneumoperitoneum) inverted V sign (spinal cord) Naclerio V sign (pneumomediastinum) V sign (interphalangeal joint subluxation)
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Gehweiler classification of atlas fractures

The Gehweiler classification of atlas fractures described 5 types of fractures of the atlas. In addition, Dickman classified injuries of the transverse atlantal ligament (a.k.a. transverse band of the cruciform ligament) which has been incorporated into this classification system. type 1: fract...
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Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations

The Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations describes injuries of the atlanto-occipital joint according to the displacement of the occipital condyles relative to the atlas: type I: anterior displacement type II: longitudinal distraction (superior-inferior displacement) type...
Article

AO/OTA classification of acetabular fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying acetabular fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1. type A: partial articular isolated wall or column fracture A1: ...
Article

Renal transplant scintigraphy

Renal transplant scintigraphy is a non-invasive diagnostic modality, using radioactive isotopes, to assess renal transplant related complications. Renal scintigraphy images are acquired with a dynamic planar procedure using a radioactive isotope visualized on a gamma camera. The final result is ...
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AO/OTA classification of distal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying distal tibial fractures or tibial distal end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraarticular...
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AO/OTA classification of malleolar fractures

The AO/OTA classification of malleolar segment fractures is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying malleolar fractures. It takes the Danis-Weber classification into account and can be correlated to the Lauge-Hansen classification. Malleolar fractures are divided into three grou...
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Metal foreign body

Metal foreign bodies may be present if they are ingested, inserted, or as a result of an injury.  Radiographic features Nearly all metals are radiopaque and can be seen on plain radiographs and CT with the exception of aluminum, which may not be seen on plain radiographs 1,2. Ultrasound Meta...
Article

Bucket handle mesenteric injury

Bucket handle mesenteric injuries are avulsions of the mesentery off a bowel segment (the handle) due to shearing forces in blunt trauma to the bowel and mesentery. Laceration of the mesenteric vessels results in intestinal ischemia. Clinical presentation The most common mechanism of injury in...
Article

Shoulder (Velpeau view)

The Velpeau view of the glenohumeral joint is a modified axial projection performed in the context of shoulder immobilization. Indications This projection is performed on patients with a shoulder sling (Velpeau bandage) in place, often in the context of post-operative or a post-reduction prese...
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External fixation

External fixation is a method for stabilizing open limb fractures and other complex limb injuries (e.g. extensive soft tissue or vessel injuries). It is mostly a temporary measure until definitive surgical treatment (open reduction and internal fixation) can be safely performed 1. It is also use...
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Traction splint

Traction splints are external devices primarily used in the pre-hospital acute management for the reduction and immobilization of femoral shaft fractures. Their main aim is to limit movement of fracture fragments, thus reducing the risk of vessel injury, pain, and nerve damage 1.  Radiographic ...
Article

Tourniquet

Tourniquets are external devices used to temporarily stop active arterial bleeding on the extremities, which are not controllable by dressing or packing. The tourniquet is placed proximally to the site of injury, at the most distal aspect of the undamaged, healthy tissue. Note that devices widel...
Article

Pelvic binder

Pelvic binders are external devices commonly used to stabilize the pelvic ring in patients with suspected unstable pelvic fracture.  Radiographic features Most binders have a single metallic buckle, which allows the approximate assessment of their position on pelvic radiographs too. The plasti...
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Cervical spine collar

Cervical spine collars are a form of spine orthoses, typically used to immobilize the cervical spine of patients who are thought to be at risk of unstable spine injury (e.g. due to a motor vehicle accident).  Practical points Cervical spine collars are often utilized for trauma patients, and t...
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Medial cuneiform fracture

Isolated medial cuneiform fractures are rare, and fractures of the medial cuneiform are more commonly seen in combination with other fractures of the foot.  Epidemiology Most commonly, fractures of the cuneiform bones occur in combination with other fracture-dislocations of the midfoot 3. When...
Article

Antiglide plate fixation

Antiglide plate fixation is an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) technique used in oblique diaphyseal fractures of the distal fibula.  Usage They are used to counteract vertical shear forces during axial loading in the diaphyseal bone and to prevent sliding/shortening of the fracture fra...
Article

Tile classification of pelvic fractures

The Tile classification of pelvic fractures is the precursor of the more contemporary Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account stability, force direction, and pathoanatomy. The integrity of the posterior arch determines the grade, with the posterior arch ...
Article

Medial patellofemoral ligament injury

Medial patellofemoral ligament injuries comprise sprains, tears and ruptures as well as avulsion fractures of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). They occur regularly in the association with acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocations and are also found in the setting of multi-ligament ...
Article

Lateral collateral ligament injury of the knee

Lateral collateral ligament injuries of the knee are rare in isolation and usually occur in the context of a posterolateral corner injury or in the association of other ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Terminology A lateral collateral ligament injury of the knee is also referred to as the fib...
Article

Intramedullary nailing

Intramedullary nailing is an internal fixation technique mainly used for the surgical management of long bone diaphyseal fractures and since more recently, also in metaphyseal and periarticular fractures. History and etymology Bircher reported an intramedullary fixation with ivory pegs in 1886...
Article

Distal humeral fracture

Distal humeral fractures are traumatic injuries involving the epicondyles, the trochlea, the capitellum and the metaphysis of the distal humerus and are often the result of high energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or a fall from a height. In the elderly, they may occur as a domestic acc...
Article

Abdominal wall injury

Abdominal wall injuries comprise a set of injuries of the abdominal wall and include different forms of muscle injuries, traumatic hernias and injuries to the subcutaneous tissue.  They are often overshadowed by the attention to associated “more severe” abdominal visceral injuries. Epidemiology...
Article

Proximal femoral nail

The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. Similar to the gamma nail the proximal femoral nail consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight bending ...
Article

Gamma nail

The gamma nail or trochanteric nail is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. The gamma nail consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight bending to reflect proximal femoral diaph...
Article

Intramuscular degloving injury

An intramuscular degloving injury is a term referred to as a circumferential intermuscular dissociation of inner and outer muscular components with or without retraction. It has been described in the rectus femoris muscle. Terminology An intramuscular degloving injury has been also described a...
Article

Rectus femoris muscle injury

Rectus femoris muscle injuries are muscle injuries, which encompass contusions, strains, tears and avulsions of the rectus femoris muscle.  Epidemiology Rectus femoris muscle injuries are a common injury in athletes, especially in football/soccer players 1. The rectus femoris muscle is most fr...
Article

Quadriceps injury

Quadriceps injuries are injuries affecting the quadriceps muscle or quadriceps tendon and comprise a spectrum of strains, tears, avulsion and contusions up to the quadriceps tendon rupture. Epidemiology Quadriceps injuries are common injuries in athletes and the quadriceps muscle is often affe...
Article

Muscle contusion

A muscle contusion (a.k.a. muscle bruising or bruise) is a form of muscle injury usually due to direct impact and associated with intramuscular hemorrhage. Epidemiology Muscle contusions are common injuries and are more frequently seen in males 1,2. In athletes, muscle contusions are the most ...
Article

Buttress plate

Buttress plates are osteosynthetic implants commonly used in the metaphyseal area for internal fixation of articular fractures to support intraarticular fragments. Usage They are used to counteract vertical shear forces during axial loading in the metaphyseal area and to prevent sliding/shorte...
Article

Forearm (PA view)

The posteroanterior forearm view is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment of suspected r...
Article

Forearm (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral forearm view is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment of sus...
Article

Dorsal bridge plate fixation

Dorsal bridge plate fixation is an open reduction internal fixation technique for extensive comminuted articular and metaphyseal radial fractures. Terminology Dorsal bridge plate fixation is also known as dorsal spanning plate fixation. Indications The main indication is the treatment of dif...
Article

Posterior malleolus fracture

Posterior malleolus fractures are fractures of the posterior segment of the tibial plafond and a common occurrence in the setting of bimalleolar or trimalleolar ankle fractures. Epidemiology Posterior malleolar fractures occur in up to 46% of type Weber B or C fracture-dislocations and are rar...
Article

Volar locking plate

Volar locking plates or distal volar radial anatomical plates are the most commonly used metallic device in the open reduction and internal stabilization of distal radius fractures. These devices allow immediate postoperative return of motion, and are good at preventing angular displacement. The...
Article

Dislocation versus subluxation

Malalignment of a joint may be a dislocation or subluxation: dislocation is the complete (100%) loss of articular congruity, i.e. no part of the articular surfaces of the bones contributing to the joint are touching each other subluxation is the partial (<100%) loss of articular congruity, i.e...
Article

Emphysema (disambiguation)

Emphysema refers to any disease process involving an abnormal accumulation of air/gas in the tissues. When used alone, it is usually taken to mean the lung disease, pulmonary emphysema, which forms part of the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  gastric emphysema: include...

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