Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,350 results found
Article

Mondor disease (penis)

Penile Mondor disease is a benign self-limiting condition of the penis characterised by thrombophlebitis of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis or one of its tributaries. Mondor disease also occurs in the breast and axilla. Epidemiology It usually occurs in sexually active young adults. ...
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Pancreaticoduodenal arcade

The pancreaticoduodenal arcade refers to an arterial network that links the blood flow of the coeliac artery and superior mesenteric artery via the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Gross anatomy Origin The pancreaticoduodenal arcades originate from the superior pancreaticod...
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Circle of Zinn

The circle of Zinn is an arterial anastomotic ring surrounding the optic nerve head in the sclera formed by branches of the short posterior ciliary arteries. Multiple small branches from the circle of Zinn supply the anterior pia of the optic nerve, the optic disc and contribute to the blood sup...
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Posterior ciliary arteries

The posterior ciliary arteries are usually paired branches arising from the ophthalmic artery, one medial and one lateral, each giving off a number of branches that supply the uvea 1. Close to the optic nerve, are the short posterior ciliary arteries, usually numbering 16-20; these supply the ...
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Short posterior ciliary arteries

The short posterior ciliary arteries are branches of the posterior ciliary arteries which are, in turn, branches of the ophthalmic artery. Each eye has multiple small short posterior ciliary arteries (16-20) which pierce the sclera adjacent to the optic nerve. Within the sclera, they anastomose...
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Long posterior ciliary arteries

The long posterior ciliary arteries are branches of the posterior ciliary arteries which are in turn branches of the ophthalmic artery. They supply the anterior part of the choroid of the ocular globe as well as the iris and ciliary muscle 1,2. Each eye has a number of long ciliary arteries. T...
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Venolympatic malformation

Venolympatic malformation is a descriptive term for vascular malformation. It is comprised of dysplastic venous and lymphatic channels. Anatomy can be better categorised under the ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies if it is better known. They were previously described under the spectrum ...
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Brachial artery Doppler assessment for detecting endothelial dysfunction

Brachial artery Doppler assessment for detecting endothelial dysfunction is performed for detecting and classifying endothelial dysfunction by measuring the vascular dilation of the brachial artery, which is highly related to coronary endothelial dysfunction 1,4. This test is generally indicate...
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Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC)

Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC), also known as “echocardiographic smoke” is an echogenic swirling pattern of blood flow created by enhanced ultrasonic back-scatter from clumping of the cellular components of blood in instances of stagnating or low-velocity (low-flow states) 1. It di...
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Intra-abdominal hypertension

Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as an elevation in intra-abdominal pressure that is greater than or equal to 12 mmHg. Although it can be asymptomatic, medical management of this condition is essential to avoid progression to abdominal compartment syndrome. Radiology plays a role in facil...
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Prothrombin 20210 mutation

Prothrombin 20210 mutation is a prothrombotic haematological condition which predisposes individuals to thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis cerebral venous thrombosis cerebrovascular events pulmonary embolism Epidemiology It considered the second most commonly inherited th...
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Dialysis access-associated steal syndrome

Dialysis access-associated steal syndrome or haemodialysis access-related hand ischaemia arises as a complication of arteriovenous (AV) access. Epidemiology Symptomatic dialysis access-associated steal syndrome has been reported in up to 6% of AV access patients ref. Prevalence is higher in br...
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Superior vena cava stenting

Superior vena cava stenting is an interventional procedure used for the management of superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction. Indication This procedure is indicated in severe symptomatic SCV obstruction with failure of the medical treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, anticoagulation therapy, diureti...
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Vertebral arteria lusoria

Vertebral arteria lusoria is an extremely rare anatomical variant of the aortic arch, whereby the right vertebral artery arises from the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery 1. The aberrant right vertebral artery has a retro-oesophageal and retrotracheal course before entering a cervical t...
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Simmons catheter

The Simmons catheter, also known as Sidewinder 1, Sim, or SS catheter, is a common reverse-curve angiographic selective access catheter designed for catheterisation and subselection of brachiocephalic or visceral arteries, in order to secure access, advance, and exchange devices, or deliver cont...
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Rail guidewires

Rail guidewires, also known as working wires, are interventional procedures wires used during the last steps of interventions and have ideal properties for equipment exchange (e.g. angioplasty balloons, stents). They are inserted in the catheter after reaching the target destination and after re...
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Lumbar veins

The lumbar veins are paired segmental veins that drain structures of the back and posterior abdominal wall. They are the venous complement of the lumbar arteries. They primarily drain into the inferior vena cava and ascending lumbar veins. Gross anatomy There are usually four pairs of lumbar v...
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Venous drainage of the upper limb

The venous drainage of the upper limb is highly variable, however the anatomy by which the veins drain the upper limb can be broadly divided into superficial and deep venous systems 1. Superficial venous system cephalic vein accessory cephalic vein basilic vein median cubit...
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Deep palmar arch

The deep palmar arch is the terminal branch of the radial artery, usually forming an anastomosis with the ulnar artery 1. The radial artery enters the palm in between the oblique and transverse heads of adductor pollicis muscle, coursing across the palm approximately 1 cm proximal to the superf...
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CT abdominal aorta (protocol)

CT abdominal aorta can be performed with or without contrast. The decision is based on the indication, clinical indications provided, and vascular access. Various scanning methods can be utilised depending on the scanner and patient demographics. NB: This article relates to general protocol des...
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Splenorenal shunt venous aneurysm

Splenorenal shunt venous aneurysms are rare venous aneurysms that usually develop in a setting of portal venous hypertension on a background of cirrhosis in those with an associated inherent venous wall weakness 1. Epidemiology These venous aneurysms are rare, and there are no reported inciden...
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Inferior tympanic artery

The inferior tympanic artery is a small branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery that supplies the tympanic cavity. Summary origin: proximal neuromeningeal trunk of ascending pharyngeal artery course: passage through tympanic canaliculus termination: anastomosis with caroticotympanic arter...
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Murphey's teat

Murphey’s teat, also known as Murphey’s tit or Murphey’s excrescence, refers to the cerebral angiographic finding of a focal outpouching within an intracranial aneurysm that indicates the likely site of rupture in a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage 1,2. This sign, when present, is particula...
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Access guidewires

Access guidewires are interventional procedures wires used during the first steps of interventions, to secure stable access and sheaths/catheter insertion. They are quickly exchanged for a navigation wire thereafter. The most common access wires are1: Cope Mandril wire Nitrex wire Properties...
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Thoraco-abdominal aneurysm

A thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) refers to an aneurysm that involves thoracic and abdominal aorta. The usually comprise of result from continuous dilation of the descending thoracic aorta extending into the abdominal aorta. Pathology Multiple configurations occur anywhere along the ...
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Branched endovascular aneurysm repair

A branched endovascular aneurysm repair (BEVAR) is a type of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) which where are fenestrations placed in the endograft allowing cannulation and stenting of the visceral and renal arteries to maintain branch patency in a segment of treated aorta.
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Persistent sciatic vein

Persistent sciatic vein is one of two known embryonic veins in the lower limb which may persist, the other being the lateral marginal vein. Although both are associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome 1-3, only the lateral marginal vein is also referred to as the Klippel-Trenaunay vein. The sci...
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Median arcuate ligament

The median arcuate ligament is a fibrous arch connecting the left and right diaphragmatic crura at the aortic hiatus 1,2. A low-lying median arcuate ligament can compress the coeliac axis to cause coeliac artery compression syndrome which is also known as median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)...
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Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome

Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (aTOS) is considered rarest from of thoracic outlet syndrome and can result in compression of arterial structures (especially the subclavian artery) at thoracic outlet, or superior thoracic aperture. Many of these patients may also have concurrent venous thora...
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Intrathymic left brachiocephalic vein

Intrathymic left brachiocephalic vein is a common variant that can often be seen during fetal ultrasound. Instead of coursing posterior to the thymus, the left brachiocephalic vein courses through the thymus 1. It is considered a normal variant and is believed to have no adverse effects on the...
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Persistent limbic arch

A persistent limbic arch (or ring) is a cerebral vascular anatomical variant whereby a complete vascular ring encircles the limbic system and corpus callosum. In the embryo, this connection is between the anterior choroidal artery and the anterior cerebral artery (via pericallosal artery) 2. T...
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Anastomosing haemangioma

Anastomosing haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms consisting of thin-walled anastomosing vessels. These lesions have been just recently added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumours in 2020 as a separate entity 1-3 Epidemiology Anastomosing haemangiomas are rare lesions with a w...
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Flashlight sign (B-flow)

The flashlight sign is a recently described B-flow vascular ultrasound sign caused by wall adherent and floating thrombi and emboli in arteries, which appear as bright spots on imaging. Radiographic features The flashlight sign is described as a moving, very bright intraluminal focus of signa...
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Retiform haemangioendothelioma

Retiform haemangioendotheliomas or hobnail haemangioendotheliomas are intermediate locally aggressive and rarely metastasising vascular neoplasms with a distinctive hobnail endothelial cell morphology. Epidemiology Retiform haemangioendotheliomas are rare with <100 cases reported in the litera...
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Familial hypercholesterolaemia

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal dominant 1 condition resulting in hyperlipidaemia.  Epidemiology 1 in 200 individuals are estimated to be carriers of at least one gene associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia 1. Pathology Features of hyperlipidaemia such as early/e...
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Thoracic splanchnic nerves

The thoracic splanchnic nerves are three paired autonomic nerves that provide sympathetic innervation of the abdominopelvic viscera and vessels. They contain efferent and afferent fibres. Gross anatomy Three pairs of thoracic splanchnic nerves arise from the T5 to T12 sympathetic ganglia. Gre...
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Phrenic plexus

The phrenic plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia in the upper abdomen. It is a lateral epiarterial extension of the coeliac plexus. Summary location: the bilateral ganglia and plexuses lie along the inferior phrenic arteries origin: preganglionic sympathetic fibr...
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Renal plexus

The renal plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the upper abdomen and is a lateral perivascular extension of the aorticorenal plexus. Summary location: bilateral plexuses and ganglia lie on the renal arteries lateral to the aorticorenal plexuses origin:...
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Aorticorenal plexus

The aorticorenal plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia located in the upper abdomen and is an inferior perivascular extension of the larger coeliac plexus. Some descriptions separate the aortic and aorticorenal plexuses but they are considerably interconnected and co...
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Autonomic ganglia and plexuses

The autonomic ganglia and plexuses are a collection of ganglia where autonomic preganglionic neurones arising from the CNS synapse with postganglionic neurones outside the CNS, i.e. in the peripheral nervous system. Many of the ganglia contain nerves of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervou...
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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a large haemostatic glycoprotein which serves several roles in platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. Physiology vWF is synthesised by vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. A series of complex post-translational modifications result in the creati...
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Normal imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging divided by body region and system. brain head and neck spine chest breast gastrointestinal genitourinary hepatobiliary upper limb lower limb paediatrics
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Saphena varix

Saphena varix refers to a dilation of the great saphenous vein at its junction with the femoral vein at the level of the groin. Epidemiology Saphena varix is a rare condition 4.  Clinical presentation  A saphena varix presents as a reducible swelling in the groin that may be confused for a f...
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Crawford classification

The Crawford classification is a system used to classify thoracoabdominal aneurysms and has important therapeutic implications. Precise classification of anatomical features allows accurate stratification of risk and appropriate operative planning 1,2.  Classification The system divides thorac...
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Intravascular lipoma

Intravascular lipomas, also known as intravenous lipomas, are rare benign primary intravascular lesions with fatty nature 1.   Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic. When intravascular lipomas become large, they can cause partial obstruction and mass effect. If they occur in supe...
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Carotid arteries

The carotid arteries is used as a collective term for: common carotid artery (CCA) and its two terminal branches external carotid artery (ECA) internal carotid artery (ICA) These arteries provide the vast majority of the arterial supply to the head and neck region and central nervous system...
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Acceleration index

Acceleration index is an indirect sonographic sign to assess renal artery stenosis 1. Usage Acceleration index is used in the Doppler assessment of the renal arteries when assessing for renal artery stenosis. Measurement Acceleration index is calculated by subtracting the initial systolic ve...
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VEXAS syndrome

VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome is a severe, treatment-refractory, monogenic, multiorgan, autoinflammatory condition with vasculitic and haematological complications. Epidemiology VEXAS syndrome is likely to be rare, but also likely to be underdiagnose...
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Pulmonary trunk to aortic ratio

The pulmonary trunk to aortic ratio (PA:A), also known as main pulmonary artery to aorta ratio (MPA:A), is a measurement that can be made on CT and MRI scans and, in some instances on echocardiography 3. In most instances, a normal ratio in adults is taken 1:1 or less, and with ratios greater th...
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Aortic free floating thrombus

Aortic floating thrombus (AFT) is a rare form of aortic thrombosis characterised by the presence of thrombus protruding into the aortic lumen which may or may not be connected to the wall by a stalk. Pathology Aetiology Aortic free floating thrombus may develop in those without pre-existing d...
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Pulmonary artery intramural haematoma

Pulmonary artery intramural haematoma (PA-IMH) refers to a haemorrhage within the wall of the pulmonary arteries. It can occur alone in the setting of a thoracic aortic injury or as a complication of an acute aortic dissection for example in a setting where the posterior wall of the aortic root ...
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Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery

The persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery is a rare anatomical variant of the ophthalmic artery. Instead of arising from the supraclinoid (C6) segment of the internal carotid artery, as is normally the case, the persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arises from the lateral aspect of the cavernous (C...
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Cauldwell classification

Cauldwell classification is a commonly used classification in assessing bronchial artery branching pattern. Classification The bronchial artery branching pattern is classified into four types based on the number of intercostobronchial trunks (ICBT) - that gives rise to right bronchial artery a...
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Contrast agent pooling sign

The contrast agent pooling sign is a CT sign characterised by dense intravenous contrast agent pooling in veins, and may signal imminent cardiac arrest. Radiographic features The contrast agent pooling sign is characterised by dense intravenous iodinated contrast media pooling and layering in ...
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Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
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Pseudoendoleak

Pseudoendoleak is a colour Doppler ultrasound phenomenon caused by spurious colour signal in the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Radiographic features Pseudoendoleak is defined as flow signal on colour Doppler in the aneurysm sac following EVAR, without evidence of ...
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Carotid artery tortuosity

Carotid artery tortuosity is the elongation of the extracranial carotid arteries with redundancy and/or altered course, which may present on imaging as kinking, coiling, and/or looping 1,2. Clinical presentation Carotid artery tortuosity is mostly (~80%) asymptomatic. When symptomatic (~12.5%,...
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PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS)

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is a broad group of segmental overgrowth disorders that can occur with or without associated vascular anomalies, caused by activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which are also responsible for the vast majority of isolated lymphatic malformations and s...
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Contraceptive implant migration

Contraceptive implant migration is a rare complication of etonogestrel implant insertion.  Clinical presentation unable to palpate device in the upper arm chest pain dyspnoea non-productive cough menorrhagia irregular vaginal bleeding Pathology Contraceptive implants are ...
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Pulmonary valve calcification

Pulmonary valve calcification is an uncommon occurrence and usually occurs in the presence of longstanding elevation of right ventricular pressures (such as that of severe pulmonary hypertension). It can also be associated with pulmonary valve stenosis. Some authors suggest if valve calcificatio...
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Suboccipital cavernous sinus

The suboccipital cavernous sinuses are paired venous plexuses that surround the horizontal (distal V3) portion of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction. Its name derives from its resemblance to the cavernous sinus as it is a venous cushion surrounding a large arterial loop at the...
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Lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity

Lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity, also known as nasal pyogenic granuloma, is an uncommon benign, rapidly growing vascular neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Terminology The term “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer due to its lack of infectious origin according to histological and mi...
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Post traumatic arteriovenous vascular malformation

Post traumatic arterio-venous vascular malformations are an uncommon acquired form arteriovenous malformations which occur following a traumatic to that site. Pathology As with other vascular malformations, they comprise multiple communicating channels between arterial and venous channels at t...
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Medical devices in the limbs

Medical devices in the limbs are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI reporting. Most commonly they include orthopaedic hardware. Orthopaedic joint replacement hardware (arthroplasty) joint fusion hardware (arthrodesis) internal fixation hardware (ORIF) ...
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Flame sign (carotid)

The flame sign refers to a gradual tapering of contrast opacification in the mid-cervical internal carotid artery, sparing the carotid bulb. The sign can be observed on angiography (digital subtraction angiography 1, CT angiography 1, or contrast-enhanced MR angiography 2) in either of two scena...
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Crescent sign (disambiguation)

The characteristic shape of the crescent has been given to many radiological signs over the years: air crescent sign (aspergillosis) crescent in a doughnut sign (intussusception) crescent sign (arterial dissection) crescent sign (intravenous pyelogram) crescent sign (lung hydatid) crescent...
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Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
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Lateral thoracic vein

The lateral thoracic vein (TA: vena thoracica lateralis) is a tributary of the axillary vein. It provides venous drainage for the axilla, anterolateral chest wall, including serratus anterior and pectoralis muscles and breast, and the supraumbilical abdominal wall. Terminology In some texts, t...
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Contrast level within inferior vena cava

A dependent contrast level within the inferior vena cava is a situation that can be observed in some cases with inferior vena caval contrast reflux. Its presence is usually associated with very poor cardiac output and can be accompanied by dependent layering of venous refluxed contrast within th...
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Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
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Egyptian eye sign

"Egyptian eye sign" or "sonographic eye sign" refers to the normal appearance of great saphenous vein on ultrasound, in transverse view 1,2. Ultrasound examination of the great saphenous vein shows echogenic fascia surrounding it, with the saphenous fascia superiorly and the muscular fascia inf...
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Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
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LumiFlow

LumiFlow is a postprocessing technique for colour or power Doppler ultrasound, which produces a relief-like visualisation of the depicted vasculature.  Physics Lumiflow can be applied to both colour and power Doppler imaging. It applies a shading with an artifical light source to create a thre...
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Deep artery of the penis

The deep artery of the penis, also known as cavernosal artery, is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery. Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates terminally into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior marg...
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Dorsal artery of the penis

The dorsal artery of the penis is one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal pudendal artery bifurcates into the deep artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis at the anterior margin of the perineal membrane 1. Terminatio...
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Artery to the bulb

The artery to the bulb of the penis (male) or vestibule (female) is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. It differs slightly in males and females.   Artery to the bulb of the penis Origin: internal pudendal artery, distal to the perineal artery1. a common penile artery, serving as the or...
Article

Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
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Perineal artery

The perineal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery and supplies some of the perineal musculature and external genitalia. Summary Origin: branches off the internal pudendal artery, arising at the level of the posterior angle of the perineal membrane Branches: it has two branches: a ...
Article

Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
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Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularisation of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
Article

Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularisation of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
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Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
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Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
Article

Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
Article

Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
Article

Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
Article

Renal artery calcification

Renal artery calcifications, also known as renovascular calcifications, are deposits of calcium salts on the wall of a renal artery, found incidentally on imaging, usually CT 1. They are associated with extrarenal atherosclerosis and linked to hypertension 2. Terminology The term “renal artery...
Article

Central vein

A central vein refers to a major vein close to the centre of the circulation, i.e. the heart. It originally referred to those large veins in which the distal tip of a catheter could lie for central venous pressure monitoring. To accurately measure the central venous pressure, which is the pressu...
Article

Anasarca

Anasarca refers to a state of generalised oedema.  Terminology Some definitions of anasarca focus on the presence of subcutaneous (body wall and/or extremity) oedema 1,2,7, while others focus on pleural effusions and ascites 3. An overarching definition is the accumulation of fluid (water rete...
Article

Implant migration

Implant migration or hardware migration refers to the displacement of an implant or component away from its designated position and is associated with hardware failure and loosening. Examples of implant migration include screw break out or screw back out, cage extrusion, inlay extrusion, choledo...
Article

Splenic vein thrombosis

Splenic vein thrombosis (plural: thromboses) is an uncommon condition in which the splenic vein becomes thrombosed, that most frequently occurs in the context of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Whilst, for the most part asymptomatic, splenic vein thrombosis increases risk of gastric varices a...
Article

Absent azygos vein

An absent azygos vein is a very uncommon variant in which the azygos vein fails to develop. In cases of agenesis of the azygos vein, the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins play an important role in venous drainage, accounting for drainage of both the right and left intercostal veins 1-3. ...
Article

Bronchomediastinal trunk

The bronchomediastinal trunks (a.k.a. bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunks) are lymphatic trunks, one on each side of the body. On the left, the bronchomediastinal trunk is a tributary of the thoracic duct, and on the right, it is a tributary of the right lymphatic duct. Although, in some individ...

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