Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,297 results found
Article

Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...
Article

Pericallosal artery

The pericallosal artery is the distal portion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) that courses over the superior surface of the body of the corpus callosum in the pericallosal cistern. It gives off many small branches to the corpus callosum, forming the pericallosal moustache. Some authors de...
Article

Pericallosal moustache

The pericallosal moustache is formed by small branches from the pericallosal arteries and their accompanying veins. These form what appears to be an upturned poorly groomed moustache (not unlike Salvador Dali) and outline the superior surface of the corpus callosum (pericallosal cistern).
Article

Lateral lenticulostriate arteries

The lateral lenticulostriate arteries arise from the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), usually from M1 segment, more rarely from the postbifurcation or M2 segment. They supply the lateral portion of the putamen and external capsule as well as the upper internal capsule. They are longer (al...
Article

Medial lenticulostriate arteries

The medial lenticulostriate arteries are generally considered to arise from the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and supply the globus pallidus and medial portion of the putamen 1,3.  They are shorter, thinner and fewer in number than the lateral lenticulostriate arteries, which ar...
Article

Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACom) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) along with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major bra...
Article

Common carotid artery

The common carotid artery is a paired artery of the neck that supplies blood to the head, face and neck.  Summary origin: left: branch of the aortic arch right: branch of the brachiocephalic trunk course: posterior to sternoclavicular joint, lateral to thyroid and trachea supply: head and ...
Article

Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses

The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are variant anatomical arterial communications between the anterior and posterior circulations due to abnormal embryological development of the vertebrobasilar system. They are named, with the exception of the proatlantal artery, using the crani...
Article

Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery is a branch of the supraclinoid (C6) segment of the internal carotid artery. Gross anatomy Origin The ophthalmic artery arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the internal carotid artery exits the cavernous sinus. It originates from the antero- or supero-medial...
Article

Superior hypophyseal artery

The superior hypophyseal artery (or arteries) is a branch from the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually a single trunk arising from the medial or posteromedial aspect of the internal carotid artery within 5 mm of the origin of the ophthalmic artery 2. The trunk then divides i...
Article

Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the ascending p...
Article

Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have a unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fib...
Article

Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
Article

Inferolateral trunk

The inferolateral trunk, along with the meningohypophyseal trunk, is a branch of the C4 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is identified in up to 80% of dissection specimens but is less frequently seen on imaging. It is also referred to as the artery to the inferior cavernous sinus, ari...
Article

Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Alain Bouthillier et al. described a seven segment internal carotid artery classification system in 1996 1. It remains the most widely used system for describing the internal carotid artery segments. A helpful mnemonic for remembering ICA segments is:  C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organ...
Article

Inferior hypophyseal arterial circle

The inferior hypophyseal arterial circle, also known as the inferior capsular arterial rete, is an anastomotic arterial network formed around the base of the pituitary gland by branches from three vessels, themselves branches off the cavernous portion of the carotid artery. They are: inferior h...
Article

Meningohypophyseal trunk

The meningohypophyseal trunk, also known as the posterior trunk, is a branch of the C4 (cavernous) segment of the internal carotid artery. In contrast to the inferolateral trunk, it is almost always identified at autopsy. However, due to its small size, the meningohypophyseal trunk is seen only ...
Article

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis: diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischemic colitis vascular malformation vascular ectasia angiodysplasia arteriovenous m...
Article

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein (or vein of Trolard) is the largest superficial vein on the lateral surface of the parietal or frontal lobe that connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). It usually runs in the post-central sulcus draining the adjac...
Article

Inferior anastomotic vein

The inferior anastomotic vein, also known as vein of Labbé, is part of the superficial venous system of the brain.  It is the largest venous channel on the lateral surface of the brain that crosses the temporal lobe between the Sylvian fissure and the transverse sinus. It courses posteroinferio...
Article

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

An upper gastrointestinal bleed usually refers to bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Pathology Aetiolology peptic ulcer gastritis esophagitis duodenitis Mallory-Weiss tear varices tumor vascular abnormality vascular ectasia angiodysplasia Dieulafoy lesion vascular malform...
Article

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute upper GI bleeding is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. Upper GI bleeding is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demog...
Article

Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
Article

Buccinator artery

The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
Article

Masseteric artery

The masseteric artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle. It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transvers...
Article

Infraorbital artery

The infraorbital artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery. It runs through the inferior orbital fissure, orbit, infraorbital canal then the infraorbital foramen. Here it gives off the anterior superior alveolar artery which supplies the anterior teeth and the anterior part of...
Article

Mental artery

The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery which itself is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It emerges onto the face from the mandibular canal with the mental nerve at the mental foramen, and supplies muscles and skin in the chin region. The mental ...
Article

Maxillary artery

The (internal) maxillary artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.  Origin and course The maxillary artery's origin is behind the neck of the mandible, at first, it is embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. From there it passes anterior between ...
Article

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a variant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characterized by inflammatory thickening of the aneurysm wall, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and adherence to surrounding structures. Epidemiology They account for  ~5 to 10% of all AAAs. Clinical present...
Article

Varicocele embolization

Varicocele embolization is a minimally invasive method of treating varicoceles by embolizing the testicular vein (internal spermatic veins). Indications symptomatic varicocele infertility/subfertility failed surgical ligation Contraindications Relative contraindications include: intraveno...
Article

Occipital artery

The occipital artery, a posterior branch of the external carotid artery, opposite the facial artery, near the lower margin of the posterior belly of the digastic muscle, and ends in the posterior part of the scalp. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the poste...
Article

External carotid artery

The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery that has many branches that supplies the structures of the neck, face and head. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA, which supplies the in...
Article

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of the general male population and ~40% of subferti...
Article

Carotid body tumor

Carotid body tumor, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumor that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, caro...
Article

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
Article

Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
Article

Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery (ICA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery (CCA) which supplies the intracranial structures. The other terminal branch is the external carotid artery (ECA), which is somewhat larger in caliber than the ICA, and gifts of several branches to ...
Article

Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sulcus wh...
Article

Basilar artery

The basilar artery is part of the posterior cerebral circulation. It arises from the confluence of the left and right vertebral arteries at the base of the pons as they rise towards the base of the brain. Summary origin: vertebral artery confluence course: ventral to pons in the pontine ciste...
Article

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the internal cerebral veins, often coexisting with cortical vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis, and with different clinical presentations relying on which segment is involved. As such please refer to...
Article

Empty delta sign (dural venous sinus thrombosis)

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect, which represents thrombus. It is only described in contrast-enhanced CT, not in unenhanced scans. An equivalent appearance can be noted in the ...
Article

Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) (plural: thromboses) refers to the occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and ...
Article

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a group of conditions with a common clinical and radiologic presentation. It is characterized by thunderclap headache and reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. Terminology Numerous and varied terms have been used to descri...
Article

Dural arteriovenous fistula

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) are a heterogeneous collection of conditions that share arteriovenous shunts from dural vessels. They present variably with hemorrhage or venous hypertension and can be challenging to treat. Epidemiology Most dural arteriovenous fistulas present in adulthood...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then the technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as a treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are tha...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
Article

Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae

Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid-2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
Article

WFNS grading system

The WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) grading system uses the Glasgow Coma Scale and presence of focal neurological deficits to grade the clinical severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This grading system was proposed in 1988, and this is one of the accepted systems (although not...
Article

Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the clinical severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of an intracerebral aneurysm and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe heada...
Article

Fisher scale

The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.  Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various parameter...
Article

Page kidney

Page kidney, or Page phenomenon, refers to systemic hypertension secondary to extrinsic compression of the kidney by a subcapsular collection, e.g. hematoma, seroma, or urinoma. Clinical presentation Patients present with hypertension, which may be recognized acutely after an inciting event or...
Article

Hyperreninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyperreninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumor, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular hemorrhage (Page kidney)
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) (plural: stenoses) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form a...
Article

Thoracic aortic stenosis (differential)

The differential for thoracic aortic stenosis includes: atherosclerosis aortitis (especially Takayasu arteritis) radiotherapy coarctation pseudocoarctation Williams syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis congenital rubella syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis
Article

Thoracic aortic dilatation (differential)

There is a broad differential for thoracic aortic dilatation. Differential diagnosis senile ectasia hypertension post-stenotic dilatation, e.g. bicuspid aortic valve thoracic aortic aneurysm atherosclerosis (usually descending thoracic aorta) collagen disorders Marfan syndrome Ehlers-Da...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia classification

Fibromuscular dysplasia is classified into 5 categories according to the vessel wall layer affected: intima   intimal fibroplasia (1%) media  medial dysplasia (70%, the commonest type) perimedial (subadventitial) fibroplasia (15-20%) medial hyperplasia (8-10%) adventitia adventital fibro...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
Article

Suzuki staging system for Moyamoya

The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article 1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography 2. Suzuki stage appears...
Article

Wyburn-Mason syndrome

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...
Article

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), probably better termed as median prosencephalic arteriovenous fistulas, are uncommon intracranial anomalies that tend to present dramatically during early childhood with features of a left-to-right shunt and high-output cardiac failure. Epidemiolo...
Article

Vasculitis

Vasculitis describes generalized inflammation of vessels. Vasculitides carry a broad range of clinical presentations and as a whole can involve almost any organ system. Pathology Some vasculitides are due to direct vessel injury from an infectious agent. However, a large proportion show eviden...
Article

Vascular syndromes

The are numerous vascular syndromes that can occur in the body. They include: Syndromes principally involving the vascular system Budd-Chiari syndrome celiac artery compression syndrome hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) hypothenar hammer syndrome Kasabach-M...
Article

Vascular anatomical variants

Vascular anatomical variants are common: aortic variants thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal SVC and IVC - caval variants intracranial arteries - variants
Article

Tumors of blood vessels

Blood vessel derived tumors may arise from: endothelial cells hemangioma lymphangioma angiosarcoma cells supporting or surrounding blood vessels  glomus tumor of finger hemangiopericytoma Most arise in the soft tissues or viscera. Primary tumors of the large vessels (eg. aorta, IVC) are ...
Article

Tumor thrombus

Tumor thrombus is defined as tumor extending into a vessel, typically a vein. It occurs in a wide variety of malignancies. It is vital to distinguish tumor thrombus from "bland" thrombus (free of neoplastic cells) in the setting of neoplasia, as this often impacts staging and treatment approach....
Article

True aneurysm

In a true aneurysm, the aneurysm is bound by all three layers of the vessel wall (intima, media and adventitia). The wall may be attenuated. The risk of rupture is proportional to the size of the aneurysm. Pathology Etiology congenital atherosclerosis hypertension vasculitis hereditary...
Article

Thyroidea ima artery

The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk (most common: 1.9-6.0%) right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoraci...
Article

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture 11.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compresse...
Article

Thoracic aorta

The thoracic aorta is the most superior division of the aorta and is divided into three sections: ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the third intercostal space. It term...
Article

Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life-ending event.  Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
Article

Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TAK), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is tho...
Article

Syndromes with a vascular component

Ataxia-telangiectasia CREST syndrome Lemierre syndrome Maffucci syndrome PHACE syndrome Stewart-Treves syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease Wyburn-Mason syndrome
Article

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of extra-axial intracranial hemorrhage and denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Patients tend to be older middle age, typically less than 60 years old 2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for 3% of stroke and 5% of str...
Article

String sign (disambiguation)

The string sign may refer to: angiographic string sign gastrointestinal string sign string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma myositis ossificans string sign
Article

String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops string of pearls sign on cerebral MRI in deep border zone infarction string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for ang...
Article

Stewart-Treves syndrome

Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of lymphedema 1. It was classically attributed to lymphedemas induced by radical mastectomy to treat breast cancer. Nowadays, we know that it can arise in chronically lymphedematous regions of any cause 2.  The incidence is ...
Article

Stanford classification of aortic dissection

The Stanford classification, along with the DeBakey classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management 7. Both the Stanford and DeBakey systems can be used to describe all forms of an acute aortic s...
Article

Spinal AVM classification

Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways: intramedullary extramedullary: 80% 1 Or into four types 2: type I: single coiled vessel (spinal dural AV fistula) type II: intramedullary glomus AVM type III: juvenile  type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula)...
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various angiographic features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a score that predicts the morbidity/mortality risk of surgery 5.  Grading The grading system requires correlation between C...
Article

Situs inversus

Situs inversus, (rare plural: sitūs inversi) short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. Terminology The condition is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thorac...
Article

Situs classification

Situs classification (plural: sitūs) or body situs can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups: situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of the normal configuration situs ambiguus (heterotaxy): an intermediate confi...
Article

Sinotubular junction

The sinotubular junction is the region of the ascending aorta between the aortic sinuses (of Valsalva) and where the normal tubular configuration of the aorta is attained. It marks the junction of the aortic root and ascending aorta.
Article

Scimitar syndrome (lungs)

Scimitar syndrome, also known as hypogenetic lung syndrome, is characterized by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous pulmonary vein into the systemic venous system. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and is one of the several findings in congenital pulmonary ...
Article

Superior vena caval duplication

Superior vena caval (SVC) duplication is the most common form of a left-sided SVC, where the normal right-sided SVC remains. The right SVC, however, can be smaller in approximately two-thirds of such cases 3. Pathology Results from failure of the embryonic left anterior cardinal vein to regres...
Article

Systemic hypertension

Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Recently the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have changed guidelines to indicate that pressures above 130/80 mmHg will be considered hypertension, however the Europe...
Article

Recurrent artery of Heubner

Recurrent artery of Heubner, also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, is the largest perforating branch from the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and is the only one routinely seen on angiography. Gross anatomy Origin and course Its origin is near the A1-ACom-A2 ...
Article

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli sour...
Article

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are rare vascular anomalies of the lung, in which abnormally dilated vessels provide a right-to-left shunt between the pulmonary artery and vein. They are generally considered direct high flow, low-resistance fistulous connections between the pulmona...
Article

Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis refers to a narrowing of the pulmonary artery or pulmonary trunk can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery (pulmonary trunk) type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and periph...
Article

Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
Article

Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, centr...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.