Athelia is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence of the nipple. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally.
ectodermal dysplasia 2
Interpectoral lymph nodes, also known as Rotter lymph nodes, are located in the interpectoral fascia in Rotter space, between the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles. Their number varies from one to four. They are usually considered to be a separate nodal group from the level I and II ...
This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality.
CT head: non-contrast axial
CT head: non-contrast coronal
CT head: non-contrast sagittal
CT head: angiogram axial
CT head: angiogram coronal
CT head: angiogram sagittal
CT head: venogram axial...
Perforating branches of the internal thoracic arteries arise from the paired internal thoracic arteries (also known as internal mammary arteries) and run in the superior six intercostal spaces. These arteries pierce the internal intercostal muscles and pectoralis major, contributing to the blood...
The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists.
Head and neck anatomy
Abdominal and pelvic anatomy
The inframammary fold is the anatomical boundary formed at the inferior border of the breast, where it joins with the chest.
In mammography, it is an important landmark to identify on the mediolateral oblique view to assess image quality.
The suspensory ligament of the axilla is the inferior extension of the clavipectoral fascia on each side of the thorax.
The suspensory ligament of the axilla originates from the inferior border of pectoralis minor, where the 'leaflets' of the clavipectoral fascia have fused again...
The foramen of Langer is a defect in the deep pectoralis fascia. It is a defect at the level of the third intercostal space, through which the upper lateral portion of the breast extends into the axilla forming the axillary tail of Spence.
Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland.
Located within the nipple-areolar complex, Montgomery glands open onto the skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They...
Lymphatic drainage of breast originates from breast lobules and flows through intramammary nodes and channels into a subareolar plexus, called Sappey’s plexus. From this plexus, lymphatic drainage takes place through three main routes that parallel venous tributaries. Lymphatics from the left br...
The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk for neonatal nutrition and immune function.
The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adi...
Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of breast tissue (glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts) and a normal nipple and areola complex. However, the most common etiology of amazia is iatrogenic; biopsy of the developing breast and the use of radiation th...
Breast hypoplasia is a condition which is characterized by underdevelopment of the breast. Breast hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally.
During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
Supernumerary nipples, also known as accessory nipples or polythelia, are a common congenital malformation. The nipples may be either along the embryonic milk lines or beyond the milk lines, the latter type are called ectopic supernumerary nipples. Much more rarely, the nipples appear with compl...
Spence tail is the prolongation of upper outer quadrant of the breast in the axillary direction. It is also called the axillary tail, once it passes through the foramen of Langer, it pierces the axillary fascia. The duct system is seen to extend into the axilla.
If this direct continuity with t...
Chassaignac bursa (also known as the retromammary bursa, submammary serous bursa or occasionally Chassaignac bag) is the space behind the breast, lying between the pectoralis fascia posteriorly and deep layer of superficial fascia anteriorly.
It contains loose connective tissue and aids in mobi...
The mammary glands
develop in close association with a depot of adipose tissue that is commonly
referred to as the mammary fat pad.
The mammary fat pad is a matrix of adipose
and connective tissue capable of mediating hormone action and synthesizing an
array of growth regulatory molecules.
The supraclavicular lymph nodes (often shortened to the supraclavicular nodes) are a paired group of lymph nodes located on each side in the hollow superior to the clavicle, close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous...
The pectoralis major muscle is a large fan-shaped muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but often considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.
origin: medial clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages, and external oblique aponeurosis
During the 6th week of gestation, a pair of longitudinal thickening of the epidermis develop on the ventral surface of the embryo, extending from the axilla to the medial thigh, called "mammary ridges" (or "mammary line", “milk lines"). In large part these milk lines later atrophy, leaving only...
The crests of Duret attach the most numerous superficial breast lobes by their summit to the superficial layer of fascia. The deepest crests connect the anterior lobes to the deep layer through the Cooper's ligament.
Breast lobe groups about one hundred lobules separated by interlobular connect...
Cooper ligaments are the fibrous connections between the inner side of the breast skin and the pectoral muscles. Working in conjunction with the fatty tissues and the more fibrous lobular tissues, they are largely responsible for maintaining the shape and configuration of the breast. They play a...
Sappey plexus is a network of lymphatics in the areola of the nipple. Sappey plexus assumes considerable importance in the identification of the sentinel lymph node since the subareolar route is the most straightforward to infiltrate with an injected radiotracer/dye and the most suitable in spec...
The axillary lymph nodes, also known commonly as axillary nodes, are a group of lymph nodes in the axilla and receive lymph from vessels that drain the arm, the walls of the thorax, the breast and the upper walls of the abdomen.
There are five axillary lymph node groups, namely t...
Each lobe of the breast is drained by a collecting duct terminating in the nipple. The collecting duct drains several side branches, each arising from a terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), the basic functional and histopathological unit of the breast. The terminal duct lobular unit is composed of...
Montgomery tubercles are the openings of Montgomery glands on the skin surface.
They are about 1-2 mm papules on the skin surface located on the skin of the nipple and areola.
These tubercles become prominent during stimulation and pregnancy
They are named after Wi...
The intramammary lymph nodes (IMLN) (a.k.a. intramammary nodes) are lymph nodes within the breast tissue. In breast imaging, they generally fall into BIRADS II lesions 7. They can be solitary or multiple. This article discusses normal (physiological) intramammary lymph nodes.
The sternalis muscle (TA: musculus sternalis 8), also known as rectus sternalis or parasternalis 7, is an uncommon chest wall accessory muscle and is of uncertain etiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.
Accessory breast tissue, also known as polymastia, is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary str...