Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

125 results found
Article

Posterior superior aortic recess

The posterior superior aortic recess, (also known as the superior pericardial recess or the superior sinus) is one of the variable invaginations of the superior aortic recess and is located posterior to the ascending aorta. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
Article

Posterior pericardial recess

The posterior pericardial recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the superior margin of the oblique pericardial sinus, posterior to the right pulmonary artery and medial to the bronchus intermedius. It may mimic mediastinal lymphad...
Article

Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure (TA: commissura) is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure ...
Article

Right atrial appendage

The right atrial appendage, also known as the right auricule (TA) or auricle, is a trapezoidal pouch forming the anterosuperior part of the right atrium. Pacemaker/defibrillator leads are often placed at this site. Gross anatomy The right atrial appendage is delineated from the rest of the rig...
Article

Development of the heart

The heart is one of the first organs in the developing embryo to form and function. By the start of week 4, a primitive heart has begun to pump blood and by week 7 most of the gross development of the heart is complete. Its development is complex, with several events occurring simultaneously. T...
Article

Coronary microcirculation

The coronary microcirculation comprises several anatomically and functionally different coronary vascular compartments with a small diameter (<500 µm) that play a crucial role in the regulation of myocardial perfusion. Summary location: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium blood supply: epicar...
Article

Marginal artery (disambiguation)

The marginal artery may refer to several different arteries in the body, including two different coronary vessels: callosomarginal artery (CNS) marginal artery (of Drummond) obtuse marginal artery (cardiac) right marginal artery (cardiac)
Article

Taenia sagittalis

The taenia sagittalis or sagittal bundle is a prominent pectinate muscle and a band-like structure in the right atrium and constitutes a mimic for right atrial thrombi or masses. Gross anatomy The taenia sagittalis originates from the crista terminalis and extends upwards and anteriorly dividi...
Article

Mitral annulus

The mitral annulus (MA) or mitral annular ring refers to a membrane-like structure of the atrioventricular junction, that forms a hinge for the mitral leaflets and separates the left atrial and ventricular myocardial walls. Gross anatomy The mitral annulus is a ‘D-shaped’ structure resembling ...
Article

Valve of Vieussens

The valve of Vieussens is one of two valves of the coronary sinus, which can be found at the junction to the great cardiac vein in the majority of individuals and might be of clinical importance for specific cardiac catheterization procedures. Variant anatomy It can be found in 60-90% of indiv...
Article

Left marginal vein

The left marginal vein also known as the left obtuse marginal vein is one of the tributary veins of the coronary sinus and belongs to the greater coronary venous system. Gross anatomy The left marginal vein drains the lateral wall of the left ventricle and usually courses with one of the obtus...
Article

Atrial septum

The atrial or interatrial septum (IAS) is a fibromuscular anatomical structure dividing the left and right atrium and is of substantial importance for intra- and interatrial conduction. Gross anatomy The true atrial septum is defined by the septal area which could be pierced or crossed without...
Article

Triangle of Koch

The triangle of Koch or Koch’s triangle is an important landmark for atrioventricular catheter ablation procedures for the localization of the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy From a right atrial viewpoint, the triangle of Koch is delineated by the hinge of the septal tricuspid valve leafl...
Article

Inferior pyramidal space of the heart

The inferior pyramidal space of the heart is an area filled with epicardial adipose tissue at the backside or diaphragmatic side of the heart immediately beneath the crux cordis. Gross anatomy The inferior pyramidal space is a pyramid-shaped fibrofatty structure between the two septal atrial w...
Article

Atrioventricular nodal artery

The atrioventricular (AV) nodal artery is a small artery supplying the atrioventricular septal area and the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy The atrioventricular nodal artery usually courses through the inferior pyramidal space of the heart. Origin The origin of the atrioventricular noda...
Article

Atrioventricular septum

The atrioventricular (AV) septum or septal atrioventricular junction forms a central part of the heart, where the interatrial and interventricular septum crosses the atrioventricular annular plane and join with the septal tricuspid and anterior mitral leaflet attachments. On a four-chamber view...
Article

Venae cavae

In human anatomy, the venae cavae is the collective term for the main venous great vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the right heart from the venous side of the systemic circulation, i.e. the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC). Both venae cavae do not contain any valve...
Article

Vieussens' arterial ring

Vieussens' arterial ring is a rare anatomic variant consisting of an anastomotic connection between the conus artery and branch vessels of the left coronary artery.  Gross anatomy The artery arises from the conus artery, a branch of the right coronary artery, and connects to the proximal right...
Article

Epicardium

The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium and forms the outer layer of the cardiac wall. Gross anatomy The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium, envelopes the heart, contains a variable amount of epicedial fatty tissue adjoining the myocardium at its ou...
Article

Myocardium

The myocardium defines the middle layer of the cardiac wall between the endocardium and the pericardium and forms the muscular part of the heart. Gross anatomy The myocardium represents the middle layer of the cardiac wall. It is located between the endocardium and the epicardial layer of the ...
Article

Endocardium

The endocardium defines the inner soft tissue lining of the heart within the cardiac chambers and constitutes the superficial surface of the cardiac valves. It apparently serves as a regulatory mechanism on myocardial contractility. Gross anatomy The endocardium represents the inner layer of t...
Article

Thebesian valve

The Thebesian valve, also known as the valve of the coronary sinus, is a fold in the right atrium at the opening of the coronary sinus 1. The valve can create difficulties and interfere with the cannulation of the coronary sinus during cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) 1. Gross anatomy ...
Article

Cardiac position

The cardiac position in the thorax may be described as: levocardia: left-sided heart dextrocardia: right-sided heart mesocardia: midline heart These terms purely describe the anatomic position of the left ventricular apex in the chest and their use does not indicate anything about the struct...
Article

Inferior cavoatrial junction

The inferior cavoatrial junction (ICAJ) is the term given to the point at which the inferior vena cava (IVC) enters the right atrium. It is less commonly used/seen, in contradistinction to the superior cavoatrial junction.  Accurate localization of the inferior cavoatrial junction is of practic...
Article

Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
Article

Great vessels

The great vessels is the collective term given to the major arteries and veins that convey blood to and away from the heart: aorta pulmonary artery pulmonary veins superior vena cava inferior vena cava The branches and tributaries of these named vessels are not great vessels, e.g. brachioc...
Article

Aortomitral continuity

The aortomitral continuity (also known as the aortomitral curtain, aorticomitral junction, intervalvular fibrous body) is a fibrous sheet located between the noncoronary and left coronary leaflets of the aortic valve and anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. It is attached by the left and right ...
Article

Right ventricular false tendons

Right ventricular false tendons (RFTs), also known as right ventricular muscular bands, are a much less well-known entity than left ventricular false tendons (LFTs). They are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the right ventricle, with a range of ...
Article

Sinus of Valsalva

The sinuses of Valsalva, also known as aortic sinuses, are the anatomic spaces at the aortic root bounded internally by the aortic valve leaflets and externally by outward bulges of the aortic wall. The normal sinus diameter upper limit is usually taken as 40 mm (with some publications suggesti...
Article

Chiari network

A Chiari network refers to a filamentous, weblike structure in the right atrium that results from incomplete resorption of the embryonic sinus venosus. It is an uncommon anatomical variant. Epidemiology Prevalence estimates for the general population vary widely, ranging from 2%-10% of randoml...
Article

Interventricular septum

The interventricular septum divides the right and left ventricles, running in the plane of the anterior and posterior interventicular grooves. Septation of the ventricles occurs in the fetus within 7 weeks of gestation, achieved by the formation of this embryologically heterogenous structure 6. ...
Article

Kugel's artery

An uncommon variant of coronary arterial anatomy, Kugel's artery was originally described as an anastomotic communication between branches of the proximal left circumflex artery with the distal right coronary artery. These coronary trunks often communicate indirectly through atrial anastomotic n...
Article

Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural: isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (c...
Article

Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
Article

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...
Article

Right marginal artery

The right marginal artery, also known as the acute marginal artery or right intermediate atrial branch, supplies the surrounding right atrial tissues 1,2 and, in 10-15% of cases, provides the main arterial supply to the sinus node 3,4. Gross anatomy Origin It arises from the inferior border o...
Article

Left ventricular false tendon

Left ventricular false tendons, also known as left ventricular muscular bands, are fibromuscular structures that arise from the inner trabeculated myocardial layer of the left ventricle. They may have different lengths and thicknesses. Epidemiology The incidence of false tendons ranges from 18...
Article

Posterior left ventricular artery

The posterior left ventricular (PLV) artery, also known as the posterolateral artery or branch (PLA or PLB), is a terminal branch of the coronary arterial system supplying the inferior portion of the heart. It usually arises from the right coronary artery in the typically right-dominant circulat...
Article

Septal branches of the left anterior descending artery

The septal branches of the left anterior descending artery supply blood flow to the interventricular septum of the heart. Origin These are right-sided branches (on axial CTCA) from the left anterior descending artery. Supply They provide the main blood supply to the anterior interventricular...
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) (also sometimes called the aortic vestibule) is considered to represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in TAVI work up studies.  Rela...
Article

Left pulmonary venous recess

The left pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique pericard...
Article

Right pulmonary venous recess

The right pulmonary venous recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium. It arises from the pericardial cavity proper located between the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterior to the left atrium. It invaginates towards the oblique perica...
Article

Inferior aortic recess

The inferior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus between the ascending aorta and the left atrium. It extends inferiorly to the level of the aortic valve. It may mimic mediastinal lympha...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Venae cordis minimae

The venae cordis minimae (singular: vena cordis minima), meaning "smallest cardiac veins", also known as Thebesian veins (variably capitalized in the literature) are a small group of valveless myocardial coronary veins within the walls of each of the four cardiac chambers that drain venous blood...
Article

Posterior vein of the left ventricle

The posterior vein of the left ventricle is a vein of the heart which courses over the inferior wall of the left ventricle and drains into the coronary sinus to the left of where the middle cardiac vein drains into the sinus. It drains, not unsurprisingly, the inferior wall of the left ventricle.
Article

Vein of Marshall

The vein of Marshall, oblique vein of Marshall or the oblique vein of the left atrium is a small vein that descends on and drains the posterior wall of the left atrium. It drains directly into the coronary sinus at the same end as the great cardiac vein, marking the origin of the sinus. It repr...
Article

Small cardiac vein

The small cardiac vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the acute marginal artery from the RCA. It courses in the right posterior atrioventricular groove and drains into the coronary sinus close to its termination but may drain directly into the right atrium. It drains the right ventricl...
Article

Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein or posterior interventricular vein is a vein of the heart which accompanies the posterior interventricular artery. It courses in the posterior interventricular groove and drains directly into the coronary sinus close to it’s termination. It drains the posterior wall of bo...
Article

Pericardial ligaments

The pericardial ligaments is a name given to a group of variable fibrous ligaments or adhesions that connect the pericardium to adjacent structures. These ‘ligaments’ tether the fibrous pericardium to its surrounds, hence movements of the chest wall and diaphragm  influence the position of the h...
Article

Pericardial recesses

The pericardial recesses are small spaces in the pericardial cavity formed by reflections of the pericardium. Gross anatomy Pericardial fluid can pool in these recesses and can be categorized by whether they arise from the transverse sinus, the oblique sinus, or the pericardial cavity proper 3...
Article

Transverse pericardial sinus

The transverse pericardial sinus is the transverse communication between the left and right parts of the pericardial space proper behind the two outflow arteries of the heart.   Gross anatomy It is superior to the left atrium and posterior to the intrapericardial parts of the pulmonary trunk a...
Article

Oblique pericardial sinus

The oblique pericardial sinus is a blind-ending pericardial cul-de-sac behind the heart which opens into the pericardial space proper inferiorly. Gross anatomy Its boundaries are: right (in ascending order): inferior vena cava, right inferior pulmonary vein and right superior pulmonary vein ...
Article

Sinoatrial nodal artery

The sinoatrial (SA) nodal artery is the small artery that supplies the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart (the pacemaker).  Gross anatomy Origin Right coronary artery in 60% of cases and the left coronary artery in 40% of cases. Course The artery turns posteriorly below the superior vena cav...
Article

Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
Article

Coumadin ridge

A coumadin ridge, also called warfarin ridge or left lateral ridge, is a band-like embryological remnant in the left atrium between the left superior pulmonary vein and the left atrial appendage. It is considered an anatomical variant.  The ridge is formed by the coalition of the left superior ...
Article

Right ventricle

The right ventricle (RV) is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium (RA) and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve ...
Article

Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
Article

Fossa ovale

The fossa ovale (or ovalis) is the small oval depression in the interatrial septum at the site of the closed foramen ovale, which closes once fetal circulation ceases in the first few minutes of postnatal life. It represents the overlapping primary and secondary septa of the interatrial septum. ...
Article

Foramen ovale (cardiac)

The foramen ovale (or ovalis) is the opening in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to bypass the right ventricle and non-ventilated lungs, shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium. Specifically it represents the opening between the upper and lower portions of th...
Article

Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
Article

Chordae tendineae

The chordae tendineae (singular: chorda tendinea, is rarely used) are thin strong inelastic fibrous cords that extend from the free edge of the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (the tricuspid and mitral valves) to the apices of the papillary muscles within the right and left ventricles respe...
Article

Papillary muscles

The papillary muscles are thick bands and ridges of endocardial-lined myocardium that project into the lumen of the cardiac ventricles. They essentially represent dominant ventricular trabeculae which attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves via the chordae tendineae. During systole, t...
Article

Aortic valve

The aortic valve (AV) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the left ventricle (LV). It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has left, right, and posterior cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrou...
Article

Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve or pulmonic valve (PV) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the right ventricle (RV). It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has anterior, left and right cusps, the bases of which attach around the valv...
Article

Mitral valve

The mitral valve (MV) (or bicuspid valve) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior and posterior leaflets (cusps), the bases...
Article

Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve (TV) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is one of the two atrioventricular valves (AVs) and allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior, posterior and septal leaflets (cusps)...
Article

Cardiac fibrous skeleton

The fibrous skeleton of the heart is a complex set of collagenous rings that connect annuli of all four cardiac valves. Between the four annuli are two trigones (right and left) and the membranous portions of the interatrial, interventricular, and atrioventricular septa. The annuli of the two se...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) (also known as left auricle) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium, which lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphol...
Article

Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal,. It is the mos...
Article

Superior aortic recess

The superior aortic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the superior margin of the transverse pericardial sinus and surrounds the root of the ascending aorta. Its components are variable and may be further subdivided into: a...
Article

Postcaval recess

The postcaval recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the superior vena cava and superior to the right superior pulmonary vein. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
Article

Left pulmonic recess

The left pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery.  It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronchogenic cyst.
Article

Right pulmonic recess

The right pulmonic recess is one of the pericardial recesses forming a small space within the pericardium, which arises from the transverse pericardial sinus. It is located posterior to the right pulmonary artery and anterior to the esophagus. It may mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy or a bronc...
Article

Single coronary artery

Single coronary arteries are rare (incidence 0.03-0.07%), with a higher incidence in patients with congenital heart disease (in particular truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia). They occur when there is a single ostium arising from the aorta with no ectopic ostia. There is a wide variety of ...
Article

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung pulmona...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterized by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
Article

Coronary arterial dominance

Coronary arterial dominance is defined by the vessel which gives rise to the posterior descending artery (PDA), which supplies the myocardium of the inferior third of the interventricular septum. Most hearts (80-85%) are right dominant where the PDA is supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA...
Article

Interarterial course of the left coronary artery

An interarterial course of the left coronary artery is defined as origination of the left main or left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, with a course between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery trunk.  Terminology An interarterial course i...
Article

Cardiac valves

The four cardiac valves direct the flow of blood through the heart during the cardiac cycle. Gross anatomy The heart valves are located in the cardiac fibrous skeleton: two are atrioventricular (AV) valves: the right-sided tricuspid valve (TV) and left-sided mitral (bicuspid) valve (MV) open...
Article

Pericardial space

The pericardial space or cavity is the fluid-filled space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium. In normal conditions, it contains only a small amount of serous pericardial fluid, usually 15-20 mL. Related pathology Pericardial effusion is the pathological accumula...
Article

Heart chambers

There are four heart chambers, the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle. These receive blood from the body and lungs and contract to transmit blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to the body for use in metabolism. It is best to list the four chambers in order of the s...
Article

Pericardial fat pads

Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
Article

LCx and LAD arising separately from the left coronary sinus

One of the anatomical variants of coronary artery origin comprises the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) arising separately from the left coronary sinus. Hence there is no common left main coronary artery (LCA/LMCA). It considered the commo...
Article

Interarterial course of the right coronary artery

Interarterial course of the right coronary artery, may occur if the right coronary artery (RCA) has an aberrant origin from the left coronary sinus. The interarterial course occurs because the artery passes between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. It is an uncommon anatomic variant ...
Article

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery

Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronary artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atrial chamber. It is the most common intracavitary (in...
Article

Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
Article

Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is one of the two major coronary arteries that arise from the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery). Terminology The circumflex artery can be referred to by multiple terms: circumflex artery (...
Article

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery

Diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery supply blood flow to the anterior and anterolateral walls of the left ventricle. There are usually denoted as D1, D2, D3, etc.   There are termed "diagonal" due to them branching from their parent vessel at acute angles. They ext...
Article

Left anterior descending artery

The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, also known as the anterior interventricular branch, is one of the two branches of the left coronary artery (the other branch being the circumflex (Cx) artery). Terminology The left anterior descending artery is often given the sobriquet, the widow-mak...
Article

Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta containing parts of the aortic valve and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root is located between the aortic annulus (the junction of the outflow tract of the left ventricle and the aortic valve) and the si...
Article

Conus artery

The conus artery is a small early branch off the right coronary artery (RCA) circulation. Gross anatomy Supply The artery has a variable distribution, but usually supplies a region of the anterior interventricular septum and the conus of the main pulmonary artery (hence its name). Variant an...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.