Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

251 results found
Article

Phrenic plexus

The phrenic plexus (plural: plexuses) is an autonomic nerve plexus and ganglia in the upper abdomen. It is a lateral epiarterial extension of the celiac plexus. Summary location: the bilateral ganglia and plexuses lie along the inferior phrenic arteries origin: preganglionic sympathetic fiber...
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Pulmonary plexus

The pulmonary plexus is a network of autonomic nerves and ganglia situated at the pulmonary hila of each lung which regulates bronchial smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion from submucosal glandular mucous secretion, vascular permeability and blood flow. It is derived from both the sympathetic an...
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Autonomic ganglia and plexuses

The autonomic ganglia and plexuses are a collection of ganglia where autonomic preganglionic neurons arising from the CNS synapse with postganglionic neurons outside the CNS, i.e. in the peripheral nervous system. Many of the ganglia contain nerves of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous ...
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Accessory muscles of respiration

Accessory muscles of respiration refer to muscles that provide assistance to the main breathing muscles, mainly when additional power is needed, for example during exercise or those with airway pathologies (e.g. COPD) 1,2. During normal quiet breathing, inspiration is an active process primaril...
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Lateral thoracic vein

The lateral thoracic vein (TA: vena thoracica lateralis) is a tributary of the axillary vein. It provides venous drainage for the axilla, anterolateral chest wall, including serratus anterior and pectoralis muscles and breast, and the supraumbilical abdominal wall. Terminology In some texts, t...
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Aerodigestive tract

The aerodigestive tract is a non-TA descriptive collective term for the respiratory tract and proximal portion of the digestive tract. As it is a non-standard term, its precise components vary somewhat with the context in which the term is being employed. Terminology Definitions of what precis...
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Absent azygos vein

An absent azygos vein is a very uncommon variant in which the azygos vein fails to develop. In cases of agenesis of the azygos vein, the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins play an important role in venous drainage, accounting for drainage of both the right and left intercostal veins 1-3. ...
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Bronchomediastinal trunk

The bronchomediastinal trunks (a.k.a. bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunks) are lymphatic trunks, one on each side of the body. On the left, the bronchomediastinal trunk is a tributary of the thoracic duct, and on the right, it is a tributary of the right lymphatic duct. Although, in some individ...
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Cartilage

Cartilage or cartilaginous tissue is a resilient and type of connective tissue of mesodermal origin that forms an integral part within the musculoskeletal system and as a structural component in other organs.   Cartilage can be generally classified into the following main types: hyaline cartil...
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Lung bases

Anatomically, the lung bases refer literally to the inferior concave surfaces of the lungs which directly contact the hemidiaphragms. However many radiologists, and other clinicians, use the term more generally to refer to the basal region of the lung, which like the lower zones, has no formal ...
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Honeycomb sterna

Honeycomb sterna are considered as a rare developmental variant of the sternum, resulting from unfused lateral ossification centers of the sternebrae, which gives a honeycomb configuration of the mesosternum. Usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during a routine exam of the chest.
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Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
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Main bronchi

The main bronchi is the collective term given to the left and right main bronchi which are formed by the bifurcation of the trachea at the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively.  The main bronchi form part of the lower respiratory tract and are conducting airways, i.e. ...
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Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract refers to the portion of the respiratory system that conducts air into and out of the body. It is conventionally divided into upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract (URT), also known as the upper airways, is the collective term for the components of the respir...
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Horseshoe-shaped (disambiguation)

Several normal anatomical structures and rare organ variants have been described as being horseshoe-shaped. Organ anomalies horseshoe kidney horseshoe lung horseshoe adrenal horseshoe appendix horseshoe pancreas 1 Horseshoe-shaped organs hyoid bone limbic lobe supramarginal gyrus tymp...
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Inferior cavoatrial junction

The inferior cavoatrial junction (ICAJ) is the term given to the point at which the inferior vena cava (IVC) enters the right atrium. It is less commonly used/seen, in contradistinction to the superior cavoatrial junction.  Accurate localization of the inferior cavoatrial junction is of practic...
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Interchondral joints

The interchondral joints are small articulations between the apposed costal cartilages of the ribs 7-10. On each side are three diminutive synovial joints between the surfaces of the 6th and 7th costal cartilages, 7th and 8th costal cartilages and 8th and 9th costal cartilages. The 9th and 10th...
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Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Agenesis (general)

The biological/medical term agenesis (plural: ageneses) refers to failure of an organ to grow or develop during the embryological period. Examples include: appendiceal agenesis cerebellar agenesis corpus callosum agenesis dental agenesis (anodontia) diaphragmatic agenesis dorsal pancreati...
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Xiphisternal joint

The xiphisternal joint (or more rarely, the sternoxiphoid joint) is a symphysis between the inferior margin of the body of the sternum and the superior margin of the xiphoid process. In most people it ossifies with age, usually becoming fully fused by the age of 40 years, forming a synostosis.  ...
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Lunate trachea

Lunate trachea is a rare variant of the trachea in inspiration where the trachea has a flattened shape said to resemble a crescent or moon. Normally the tracheal index (ratio of coronal to sagittal diameter) is less than 1, but with lunate trachea the ratio is greater than 1 1, 2. It is a very ...
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Srb anomaly

The Srb anomaly describes an anatomic variant of the ribs, in which there is partial to complete bony ankylosis of the first and second ribs.
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Pectoral region

The pectoral region is the anterior region of the upper chest where there are four thoracoappendicular muscles (also known as the pectoral muscles): pectoralis major pectoralis minor subclavius serratus anterior The breast is located superficial to the muscles. The lateral border of the pec...
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Tracheal bifurcation angle

The tracheal bifurcation angle can have a wide range of normal values in patients and can vary significantly in serial radiographs. It is of poor diagnostic value due to the lack of sensitivity and specificity in identifying the underlying pathology.  Terminology The interbronchial angle is th...
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Retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

The retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein is a rare vascular variant where the left brachiocephalic vein passes more inferiorly through the superior mediastinum, coursing inferior to the aortic arch and posterior to the ascending aorta to join the right brachiocepahilc vein forming the superior...
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Bridging bronchus

A bridging bronchus is a rare congenital bronchial anomaly where there is an anomalous bronchus to the right lung arising from the left main bronchus. It has a high association with right upper lobe bronchus (pig bronchus) and congenital cardiac and vascular malformations, particularly a left pu...
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Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: non-contrast axial with clinical questions CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal ...
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Accessory phrenic nerve

The accessory phrenic nerve is an anatomical variant seen in a little over one third of patients (36%). It most commonly arises from the ansa cervicalis, or slightly less commonly, the subclavian nerve. It is unknown as to how much the accessory phrenic nerve contributes to diaphragmatic functio...
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Thoracoepigastric vein

The thoracoepigastric vein provides a communication between the superficial epigastric vein and the lateral thoracic vein as it ascends superficially on the anterolateral chest and abdominal wall. It, therefore, drains into both the superior vena cava (SVC) via the axillary vein and the inferior...
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Perforating branches of internal thoracic artery

Perforating branches of the internal thoracic arteries arise from the paired internal thoracic arteries (also known as internal mammary arteries) and run in the superior six intercostal spaces. These arteries pierce the internal intercostal muscles and pectoralis major, contributing to the blood...
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Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion

Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion can be partial or complete, and may be a normal anatomic variant. Complete fusion can be seen at a young age. Pathological fusion can be seen in old age secondary to fusion caused by bridging osteophytes 2. It may also be seen in inflammatory art...
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Costoxiphoid ligament

The costoxiphoid ligaments, also known as the chondroxiphoid ligaments, are inconstant fibrous structures joining the anterior and posterior surfaces of the xiphoid to the respective surfaces of the adjacent seventh and, occasionally, sixth costal cartilages.
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory center (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Suprapleural membrane

The suprapleural membrane, also known as the Sibson, cervicothoracic or costovertebral fascia, is a dense fascial layer that is attached to the inner border of the first rib and costal cartilage anteriorly, C7 transverse process posteriorly and to the mediastinal pleura medially. It is flat and...
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Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Lymphoceles of the thoracic duct, also known as thoracic duct cysts, are lymph-filled collections/dilatations that can arise from any portion of the thoracic duct. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second posterior ...
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Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles are confusingly named, as they are not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions fr...
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Respiratory bronchiole

Respiratory bronchioles are the final division of the bronchioles within the lung.  They are a continuation of the terminal bronchioles and are approximately 0.5mm in size 1. They are comprised of simple cuboidal epithelium and contain a thin layer of smooth muscle and elastic fibers 2. Importan...
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Right lower lobe bronchus

The right lower lobe bronchus is a lobar (secondary) bronchus that is the continuation of the bronchus intermedius distally to the origin of the right middle lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The segmental bronchi divisions and bronchopulmonary segments supplied of the right lower lobe bronchus are...
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Small airways

Small airways traditionally refer to distal airways that are 2-3 mm or less in caliber 3 with a wall thickness of less than 0.5 mm 5. These therefore include terminal bronchi (have cartilage) as well as bronchioles (no cartilage). They may or may not be directly visible on CT. Related pathology...
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Right middle lobe bronchus

The bronchus intermedius divides into the right middle lobe bronchus and the right lower lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The right middle lobe bronchus originates from the bronchus intermedius around 2.5 cm distal to the right upper lobe bronchus 1. It branches in an obliquely inferior, anterior ...
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Bronchioles

Bronchioles are the branches of the tracheobronchial tree that by definition, are lacking in submucosal hyaline cartilage.  Gross anatomy The bronchioles typically begin beyond the tertiary segmental bronchi and are described as conducting bronchioles. Following the tertiary segmental bronchi,...
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Posterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of anterior and posterior intercostal arteries. The posterior intercostal arteries arise from the aorta and in part supply the spine and spinal cord and thus are considered segmental arteries. Gross Anatomy There are 11 paired arteries that constitu...
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Alveoli

The alveoli (singular: alveolus) are tiny hollow air sacs that comprise the basic unit of respiration. Gross Anatomy Alveoli are found within the lung parenchyma and are found at the terminal ends of the respiratory tree, clustered around alveolar sacs and alveolar ducts.  Each alveolus is app...
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Right upper lobe bronchus

The right upper lobe bronchus is the first of two secondary bronchi produced by the bifurcation of the right main bronchus. The other is the bronchus intermedius. Gross anatomy The right upper lobe bronchus is given off approximately 2.5 cm from the bifurcation of the trachea and is the superi...
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Secondary lobar bronchi

The secondary lobar bronchi or just lobar bronchi are the first subdivision of the main (or primary) bronchi. Like the primary and tertiary bronchi, they are conducting airways that are lined by cartilage rings. The left main bronchus gives rise to 2 secondary bronchi: left upper lobe bronchus...
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Bronchus intermedius

The bronchus intermedius is one of the two bronchi which the right main bronchus bifurcates into, the other being the right upper lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The bronchus intermedius runs distal to the right upper lobe bifurcation and follows the trajectory of the right main bronchus 1. Its m...
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Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
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Hyparterial bronchus

A hyparterial bronchus refer to any bronchus originating inferior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, the right superior lobar bronchus can be referred to by its anatomical relationship to the pulmonary arteries as being eparterial. The term may be encountered in the classificatio...
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Eparterial bronchus

The eparterial bronchus is a synonymous term for the right superior lobar bronchus. Its name is derived from the bronchus being the only one originating superior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, all other bronchi can be referred to by their anatomical relationship to the pulmona...
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Left lower lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left lower lobe bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross anatomy The left lower lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
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Left upper lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left upper lobe bronchus and the left lower lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross Anatomy The left upper lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
Article

Transversus thoracis muscle

The transversus thoracis muscle is the innermost muscle of the anterior thoracic wall (deep to external intercostal and internal intercostal muscles).   Gross anatomy The transversus thoracis is a thin band of muscle and tendon arising from the lower posterior surface of the sternum, posterior...
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Costovertebral joint

The costovertebral joint is the articulations between the ribs and the vertebral column. Gross Anatomy The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae via two distinctly different joints: costovertebral joint - articulation between the head of the rib and the vertebral body costotransverse j...
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Costochondral joint

The costochondral joints are the joints between each rib and its costal cartilage. They are primary cartilaginous joints. These joints represent the demarcation of the unossified and ossified part of the rib 1. The joint is held together by periosteum, with the lateral aspect of the costal carti...
Article

Manubriosternal joint

The manubriosternal joint, sometimes referred to as the sternomanubrial joint, is the articulation between the upper two parts of the sternum, the manubrium and sternal body.  It is at the level of the sternal angle or angle of Louis, which is at the 2nd costal cartilage and the intervertebral d...
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Central tendon of diaphragm

The muscle fibers of the diaphragm converge and attach to the central tendon of the diaphragm.  It is a thin but strong layer of aponeurosis which forms an intergral part of respiration. Gross Anatomy The central tendon of the diaphragm is located near the center of the diaphragmatic muscle bu...
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Sternal body

The sternal body or gladiolus is the middle and largest of the three parts of the sternum.  It is formed by the fusion of four sternebrae which finish ossifying after puberty. Gross anatomy The sternal body is the longest of the three parts of the sternum and is widest near its lower end. It i...
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Xiphisternum

The xiphisternum (also known as the xiphoid process or simply the xiphoid) is the smallest of the three parts of the sternum (manubrium, body or gladiolus, and xiphisternum). It arises from the inferior and posterior margin of the sternal body and projects inferiorly. It is a small cartilaginous...
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Right ventricle

The right ventricle (RV) is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium (RA) and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve ...
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Tracheobronchial tree

The tracheobronchial tree is the branching tree of airways beginning at the larynx and extending inferiorly and peripherally into the lungs as bronchioles. The luminal diameter decreases as the branching increases more peripherally into the lungs. The walls of the airway down to the level of the...
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Ductus arteriosus

The ductus arteriosum (DA) (or arteriosus) is the thick short conduit for blood to bypass the non-ventilated lungs in the fetus. It is located between and connects the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the aortic arch distal to the origin of the last branch of the arch, at t...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Venous drainage of the thoracic wall

The venous drainage of the thoracic wall drains deoxygenated venous blood from the periphery of the thoracic cage back into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy Anterior thoracic wall Anterior intercostal veins The anterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just infer...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena cava a...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the superior...
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Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
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Pulmonary trunk

The pulmonary trunk, also known as main pulmonary artery (mPA), (TA: truncus pulmonalis) is the solitary arterial output from the right ventricle, transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Gross anatomy The pulmonary trunk is approximately 50 mm long and 30 mm wide (most au...
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Subcostal muscle

The subcostal muscle has variable anatomy and forms part of the intercostal muscle group. It lies on the deep surface of the innermost intercostal muscle in the posterior chest, near the angles of the ribs, usually running over 2-3 intercostal spaces. It is most common in the upper (1-4) and low...
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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages form part of the thoracic cage and anterior chest wall. There are ten costal cartilages bilaterally, one for each of the corresponding 1st to 10th ribs, and each of the first seven ribs forms one of the seven costochondral joints. Costal cartilages 1-7 articulate with the ...
Article

Thoracic cage

The thoracic cage refers to the skeleton of the thorax: thoracic vertebral column twelve pairs of ribs: collectively referred to as the rib cage costal cartilages sternum
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Retrocrural space

The retrocrural space is located posterior to the right and left crura of the diaphragm and is a direct continuation of the mediastinum. It allows the passage of a number of structures from the chest to the retroperitoneum, including: arteries aorta veins azygos vein hemiazygos vein lympha...
Article

Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
Article

Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal,. It is the mos...
Article

Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the scalene triangle, and distally throu...
Article

Sternum

The sternum (plural: sterna or sternums) completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphisternum (a.k.a. xiphoid process). They articulate via secondary cartilaginous joints via hyaline cartilage w...
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Left main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
Article

Right main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
Article

Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

Two useful mnemonics to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus the number of letters per structure Mnemon...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Triangle of safety

The triangle of safety is an anatomical region in the axilla that forms a guide as to the safe position for intercostal catheter (ICC) placement. With the arm abducted, the apex is the axilla, and the triangle is formed by the: lateral border of the pectoralis major anteriorly lateral border o...
Article

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung pulmona...
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Twelfth rib

The twelfth rib is an atypical rib. It is the shortest rib, and one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 12th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T12 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. It also lacks a costal groove and angle. internal surface ...
Article

Eleventh rib

The atypical 11th rib is one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 11th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T11 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. The angle is slight. Its costal groove is shallow. The internal surface of this rib faces slightl...
Article

Atypical ribs

Owing to their features, the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs are considered atypical ribs. Some authors also include the second and tenth ribs as atypical. Atypical features are summarized below: first rib strongest, broadest and most curved tubercle at the inner border marks the attachment ...
Article

Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Some authors however include ribs 2 and 10 also atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The infe...

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